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Quality and Standards of Pakistan Studies Curriculum at Master Level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
The main aim of the study was to explore the quality and standards of the curriculum at the master level in different institutes of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The interview schedule was prepared for the collection of data from five subject specialists, experts. The analytic approach was used for the analysis of data. The data was coded into predetermined categories related to the theme. The results show that the curriculum of Pakistan studies enables the students to acquire and apply the concepts of Pakistan Studies to the problems of the world they live in. The result also provided that the curriculum of Pakistan Studies highlights the importance of national integration, unity and patriotism. There is no proper balance, for instance, most of the subject has been given the orientation of history, while Pakistan Study is not history it is supposed to be a very balanced composition of different subjects.
Quality, Standard, Pakistan Studies, Curriculum, Master Level.
Pakistan's Study was introduced as a compulsory subject at the secondary and higher secondary level at the beginning of 1980. The main purpose of the subject was to promote national integration, cohesion, solidarity and harmony among the new generation (GoP, 2013). Many departments of social sciences of universities are offering bachelor and master studies and philosophy degrees as well in the said subject (Iqbal et. al, 2016). The national curriculum 2006 in general and Pakistan studies, in particular, seems to be an attempt towards liberating it from ideological forces and responding to the emerging global needs of the twenty-first century (Tajuddin & Memon, 2015). In Pakistan the designing of the curriculum at school, college and university level is done by the textbook board, curriculum wing of the ministry of education and higher education commission respectively. National Council of Social Studies (NCSS), the largest association for Social Studies educators in the world, emphasized that the students are supported by the standards and quality of the curriculum. Active participation of the students is very important in the learning process (Khursheed, 2015). The main objective of education policy is to improve the quality of education. The quality of education is mainly depended on the quality of the curriculum (Rahman, 2004). It is rightly said that almost all the education policies of Pakistan acknowledged the significance of the curriculum as an important part of education. Unfortunately, the basic flaw in this approach is that the implementation aspects of all educational policies are completely ignored (Siddiqui, 2016).
According to the National Assessment System Report, the charges against the prevailing curriculum were that; it was ideologically driven. It only produces the negative impact of stereotypes learning which leads to poor learning of the students (Jamil, 2009). The content that is presented in the books is of low quality. The repetition of the contents almost at all levels also creates boredom in the students (Hashmi, 2014). Reductionism is another problem, every time themes are excluded from the curriculum and no new ideas are incorporated in the curriculum. This is a great setback to this particular subject (Marwat, 2014). They are given complete religious rights and freedom according to the constitutions of Pakistan. (Hashmi, 2011).
The development of the curriculum is a process indicating a wide range of decisions of learning experiences. These decisions are taken by different stakeholders at the national and international levels. All these stakeholders are inspiring figures that promote the whole process of education. In many advanced countries, research projects have been carried out on the learning achievements of the students (Sharma, 2009). The internationalization of the curriculum is very important for the process and development of the national curriculum of any society. An internationalized curriculum will engage students effectively in the learning process. The students of today must have the capability of knowledge and wisdom from all parts of the world. They can understand new ideas. They have the capacity to solve issues and problems and find innovative solutions (Leask, 2015). The curriculum was designed to be a synthesis of the different national curricula of the member states and is organized in the same fashion and according to the same criteria across all the language sections (Gadsby & Bullivant, 2010).
Effective teaching methods are very important in achieving the objectives successfully. The curriculum remains ineffective without effective teaching methods and techniques. In the development of the curriculum, the teaching-learning process has a central position (Arif, 2010).
Curriculum evaluation ensured as a criterion for quality education. Evaluation plays a pivotal role in keeping the young generation on the desired learning outcomes. All of the new developments of education undergo due to this very process. It is the only process that is used for reliable and valid outcomes of education. The goals of education can be attained through a valid and reliable curriculum. So all of the three terms i.e. education, curriculum and evaluation are interdependent and interrelated (Hussain et al, 2011). This paper would focus on the quality and standards of Pakistan study curriculum at the master level.
How can the quality and standard of Pakistan Studies curriculum be maintained at the master level?
The data was collected through the qualitative methodology. The interview comprised of 10 items to collect information’s from the subject specialists, experts. The interview from subject specialists, experts focused in order to investigate standards and quality of Pakistan Studies Curriculum at master level in different institutions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Five experts of all these institutes were interviewed and the relevant information was obtained directly from the respondents.
Data were collected through an interview that was conducted to get relevant information from the subject specialists and experts.
The analytic approach was used for the analysis of qualitative data in this study. The data was coded into predetermined categories related to the objectives of the study. The summary of the statements was prepared which was composed of the main ideas of the respondents.
Results and Discussion
Collection of the qualitative data using the interview schedule helped to investigate the quality and standard of Pakistan Study at Master Level.
Experts’ Views Regarding Students Concept of Pakistan Study as a Subject
One of the respondents was of the view that he thinks that on the M.A level the students can understand the concepts of Pakistan Study. He argued that:
Unfortunately, I have been a member of the National Curriculum Review Committee of HEC. This is a Committee comprising of almost 20members from all over the country. They gather after 5 or 6 years and in some cases, they gathered after 10 years. They also spend some time on unnecessary things. I am not satisfied with the work of the National Care Review Committee.
There should be a series of meetings before finalizing the curriculum of Pakistan Study. So, I would request the HEC to change the pattern of meetings of (NCRC) for Pak Study as well as other subjects. And the members should be involved in different meetings, workshops, presentations and finally, they should hold three days meeting to summarize and conclude the discussions of the exercises done during these interactions.
This is not the case in the HEC, so you know what is meant by the review of the curriculum; either you cut it short or you stretch the subject, these are the two things which are discussed in (NCRC). I will not say these are not useful exercises but it can be more useful if you gave at least two months to the Curriculum Review Committee, to properly review and work on it.
Another respondent was of the view that concepts discussed in the curriculum of Pakistan Study are reflecting, for example, some topics are taken from the historical point of view which portrays the pre-partition situation of Pakistan. This is followed by the post-partition scenario which educates the students about the current political and social challenges of the state. The material of the curriculum is arranged in such a way that the constitutional and political history becomes very significant content of the course. It enables the critical thinking of the students to reflect upon the causes of different political and constitutional movements that are related to the establishment of Pakistan.
Yet another respondent argued that as far as the design of the curriculum is concerned, it is not properly designed on the basis of the requirement of this subject.
Pakistan Studies is a multi-disciplinary subject in which different disciplines like, Economics, History, Politics, Sociology, and Geography related to Pakistan are studied. So, different subjects have to be focused to develop a detailed and sound curriculum. As far as the curriculum design for this subject is concerned, it is of course of multi-disciplinary nature, but very little conceptual content has been included which compromises on the reflective aspect of the subject.
Most of the data given in the textbooks of Pakistan Study is related to different Islamic events, political developments, economic and geographical facts presented on an empirical level not at a conceptual level. The knowledge is however not conceptual. For instance, the students are taught that Pakistan is having a parliamentary democratic system. At an empirical level, this is correct but the students do not know what a parliamentary system is? Similarly, what is democracy at a conceptual level? I think we need to include conceptual material to polish the conceptual understanding of students.
One of the respondents was of the view that the curriculum is designed with a clear intention to enable the students to know about the basic reasons responsible for the creation of Pakistan and to inculcate the spirit of patriotism in them.
The Curriculum of Pakistan: A Focus on National Integration, Unity, Patriotism
One of the respondents strongly agreed that the curriculum highlighted the notions of national integration, unity
and patriotism which exercise a strong impact on the students. I have seen over the past three decades that those who have graduated from the Pakistan Study Center are patriotic and have a deep respect for Pakistan. This implies that the curriculum inculcates these ideologies in the minds of young people.
Another respondent argued that as far as the question of Pakistan Studies’ course contents reflecting the integrity of Pakistan is concerned, one should go back to the earlier days (from 1947 to 1980) of Pakistan. There was no emphasis on the concept of nationalism in Pakistan. In 1980, for the first time during Zia period course contents for the syllabus of Pakistan Study were introduced. That was the time when the designing of the content became a problem for this new subject.
1971, was the year when we have already lost our one wing due to the strong wave of Bengali nationalism in East Pakistan. So, the question was how to accommodate the remaining four nationalities (Pakhtoon, Sindhi, Punjabi and Balochi) of the country. The curriculum of Pakistan Study had to be designed in such a way which could cater to all the ethnic and cultural values of Pakistani people.
This is then followed by the issue of his/her religious identity, the cultural and national identities are comparatively overlooked.
Then comes the concept of Pakistan which was taught to the students from 1947 up to 1970 or 1980, in that the educationists and educational policymakers intentionally ignored the concept of cultural nationalism in Pakistan. They emphasized more upon single state nationalism which annihilated the individual cultures of Pakistan. This ideology faced a terrible defeat at the hands of Bengali nationalists of former East Pakistan. Such political changes provided grounds for the endangered cultural identities which the nationalists struggled to preserve at any cost.
The curriculum is definitely designed in view of the needs of the elites, who are dominantly central authorities like our sense of unity our sense of patriotism, our sense of national integration, our notion of nationalism all these are explained in terms of centralism. Pakistan is basically a federation but the curriculum of Pakistan study is more in favor of centralism and as far as the federating units are concerned, they are almost ignored.
One of the respondents argued that above all it is the duty of teachers to emphasize the need for national integration, unity and patriotism because without achieving these, the curriculum will be of no use.
This is commendable as it is a part of our ideology to love one’s own country and motherland.
Even our Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W) at the time of migration from Makkah to Madina said: “O Makkah! I am going to leave you but still, I love you.” Thus bespeaks of his respect for the land on which he lived crucial years of his life. Naturally, everybody loves his or her motherland. It is immoral if someone does not have the same feelings towards his motherland.
Results Provide Feedback in the Process of Pakistan Studies Curriculum Evaluation
One of the respondents was of the view that it all depends upon the approach of a teacher, some teachers are very good teachers, and they put a lot of hard work, they extensively study modern trends in teaching, education, and research. However, the majority of teachers are unfortunately not doing justice with teaching their subjects. To have a non-serious attitude towards duty is not limited to teachers, unfortunately in this country, almost every person who is responsible to carry out some duty is not serious. Unfortunately, there is no such mechanism in which teachers could be oriented, could be trained for the modern trend.
We in Pakistan Study Centre, arranged two training workshops for College teachers last year, although it was not our responsibility. It is the responsibility of the HEC or Higher Education Department, but we thought anyway to help resolve the teaching problems faced by college teachers. So we spend some money on them that was a very good experience. If the HEC or the ministry of Education, Training Centers can such type of subject-based training, in the long run, it will bear more fruits.
We do have some training provided by the HEC but that is only for those people who are required to promote to the next grade.
I strongly suggest that that the Government and the HEC should arrange workshops for subject teachers that will improve the quality of teaching which will eventually benefit the students.
There was a time when I saw Mr. Abdullah in the Public Service Commission (PSC), who was then serving as Chairman of PSC. He used to ask students if they can draw the map of Pakistan with the help of a pencil. In 90% of cases, students drew the map wrong.
The student knows that Quaid-e-Azam was born in Karachi in 1876. He got an education in Sindh Madrassatul Islam, then he got law education in Bombay and then from Lincoln’s Inn. So the position is that even in the PSC exams or in all public exams there is a compulsion that the interviewer must at least ask one question about Pakistan. The candidates’ responses are disappointing which proves that whatsoever and howsoever was taught to them in Pakistan Study is less analytical which does not enable them to discuss the relevant questions critically.
We rarely give our students anything to analyze because the problem is that contradictions are there. If we ask a student to explain the concept of Pakistan, then that concept contradicts with the four provincial nationalities. If we ask a student to explain the religious basis of Pakistan, that will be in contradiction with the modern theory of nationalism. Such differences in reality and theory result in a lack of critical discussions and brainstorming.
A similar point was represented by another respondent that as far as the objectives of the curriculum are concerned, they are not properly defined due to which tools for assessment cannot be developed.
I think with the change of every regime the content material has been changed according to the ideology of the regime in power. As I have already told you that it has been used as a tool of propaganda and naturally every government prefers to use it to promote their own values, and point of view. The same respondent elaborated:
I don’t think so most of the question papers are repeated, since the things are not designed at conceptual level that’s why we see that things cannot be assessed at conceptual level things are always assessed at the level of rout learning, at the level of memory, at the level of low order learning.
An interviewee replied regarding the revision of Pakistan studies curriculum:
Changes in the Course Content are made in accordance with the Changes Occurring around the World.
One of the respondents argued that this is not possible that all the changes that are taking place around the world can be incorporated in this particular discipline. Being a graduate from Law College, University of Peshawar, I had studied about the significance of human rights. So, in the last meeting, I suggested that the Committee should include human rights in the curriculum of Pakistan Study. On the recommendation of the Committee, I prepared the content on human rights which is now a part of the curriculum.
Another respondent presented a similar viewpoint, he said that more than 12 or 15 educational policies have been introduced in Pakistan since 1947. In these policies, we have failed to correlate our curriculum objectives with the world especially the Muslim countries. On the other hand in Pakistan Study, Pakistan is introduced as an Islamic country that came into being in the name of Islam and takes pride in considering itself as the Qilla or Fort of Islam. This stance portrays a very significant position in Pakistan. Furthermore, it implies the political wish of Pakistan to lead the Muslim World but in the courses, we do not have details to teach our students about the Muslim World. The curriculum does not even show the geographical description of the countries included in the Muslim World. There are some references to organizations like the Organization of Islamic Conferences (OIC) but that is not sufficient information. Knowledge about the prominent leaders of the Muslim World like Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (regardless of his controversial personality) who tried to unite the Muslim World should also be provided in the curriculum. Also, Jamal Abdul Nasir in Egypt tried to focus on the Arab nationalism, Shah Faisal tried to highlight the Islamic concept of the Muslim Ummah, and similarly, Ahmad Bin Billah in Algeria did his best to unite the Algerian nation. Up till now, we have not focused on the Muslim World leadership and their efforts for Muslim Ummah which makes the curriculum development of Pakistan Studies limited and probably flawed. The respondent also replied:
Other nations see Pakistan through its constitution, legal system, and foreign policy. They consider these various angles and are interested to know about their success or failure in representing Pakistan. In modern times, they also observe how much regard our country has for human rights and human values? These things are unfortunately absent in the curriculum and should be discussed in detail especially at M.A/ M. Sc. Level. The current syllabus contents are more focusing on the history of Pakistan and the political challenges which it has faced in the past this needs to be changed. A conceptual framework is needed to redesign and redefine the nature of the discipline of Pakistan Study.
Consistency in the Curriculum Pakistan Studies
One of the respondents replied that every curriculum has some stakeholders which include teachers, students, education department or in our case HEC, universities, and the government. , If these stakeholders work in collaboration and support each other only then it can lead to successful curriculum development. The problem is there is a lack of collaboration between these stakeholders due to which we are facing issues in proper curriculum designing.
Another respondent highlighted the role of teachers in meeting the objectives of the curriculum. He said that efforts have been made to keep the books and the study material in the textbooks of Pakistan in accordance with the objectives set by the designers. These objectives, however, are not achieved by the teachers in the class. For example the failure in teaching the relationship between Pakistan as an Islamic state and at the same time as a modern democracy.
Generally, teachers come to the class with their own viewpoints. They carry discussion regarding Pakistan on the basis of their political ideologies and political leaders whom they follow. Furthermore, the same topics are repeatedly taught at various levels of the annual system which makes it burdensome for the students to discuss and understand.
On the other hand, B.S courses are fairly difficult. After the introduction of B.S courses, the problem of teaching methodology has arisen. Most of the teachers who are from the old educational system find the content of the BS curriculum difficult and challenging to cope with. They continue to use old teaching methods and limited learning to the new BS system which develops issues in learning and evaluation. If the students use other sources like the internet, libraries etc., only then they can survive the modern needs of learning and evaluation, otherwise, with untrained teaching staff, any innovation in the educational system is useless.
A respondent criticized the overall process of the curriculum development process. He thought that the whole system of the process of curriculum development, its implementation and assessment are not properly planned. There is no proper alignment between the contents, the objectives and assessment tools of the curriculum.
Another respondent replied that as for as Master Level is concerned there is consistency among curriculum and examination.
Yet another respondent said:
The information regarding the wars’ history of India and Pakistan in 1948, 1965, 1971 and 1998 mentioned in Pakistan Study is also questionable. We have taught up to an intermediate level that the 1965 war was started by India and that coward India attacked Pakistan during the mid-night. But when the same topic is studied at B.A/ B.Sc. or M.A/M. M.Sc. Levels or from other sources like self-study etc. then we come to know that India did not start the war, there was another external factor involved which paved the way for the war of 1965. We are delivering wrong ideas to our young generation in a very wrong manner.
The reality is highly compromised by giving wrong information in the curriculum. This not only leads to misunderstanding but it also makes the teachers and learners develop a wrong approach. We all are responsible for this wrong attitude in the real sense of the word. We are not playing our role properly whether as a teacher or as a student. This is the dilemma of our nation that we are not seriously fulfilling our responsibilities. We know very well or we are very conscious about our rights but wherever someone talks about our duties or responsibilities, there is complete silence on our behalf. We are not ready to write the truth or historical realities even after passing the two decades of the 21st century.
Teachers of Pakistan Studies Effectively Prepare their Students for the Accountability Assessment
One of the respondents replied that accountability assessment, testing, and examination are all procedures to properly gauge the knowledge of students. Since 1980, only one success which we have achieved in the broad sense in Pakistan is that the children now at least know about Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s birth and death dates. However, they will have issues in answering the questions about the neighboring countries of Pakistan or the geographical details of their country.
It is a failure because we projected Pakistan in such a way that Pakistan and the founder of Pakistan have become the two sides of a single coin.
The students do not know the geography of their district, they do not know which district is located on which side of their district, they cannot even name the seven agencies (now the Merged Tribal Districts), and they don’t know the exact population and area of their province. This is all because we are focusing more on the history of Pakistan in the curriculum which should be changed now.
Another respondent replied that he does not think that most of the question papers are repeated, since the things are not designed at conceptual level that’s why we see that things cannot be assessed at conceptual level things are always assessed at the level of rout learning, at the level of memory, at the level of low order learning.
A master’s level the situation has quite changed one of the respondents replied that at this level, our students prepare for the accountability assessment.
Pakistan Studies Curriculum Increases Assessment Reliability, the Capability of Producing Consistent Measurements of Students’ Achievement
One of the interviewees shared that assessment reliability should not be only directed to Pakistan Study Curriculum, there are other agencies like for example, stakeholders also involved.
Yet another respondent emphasized on redesigning of the textbooks of Pakistan Study.
There is a clearly set National Curriculum with clear objectives at different levels, but those objectives are not reflected in the syllabus, the course content and textbooks. So firstly, there is a need to revise the National Education Policy (NEP) and secondly, a new curriculum, syllabus and assessment style should be made in the light of that education policy.
Pakistan Study curriculum should prepare our students in such a way that they should be proud and knowledgeable of introducing themselves and their country to others especially to the non-natives. They should know about Pakistan’s constitutional and judicial systems and they should be confident to talk about the strengths as well as the weakness of their country.
The focus should not be only on textbooks but also on the necessary training of the teachers because only then the gap between the new objectives, textbooks, syllabus, and the curriculum can be reduced. These training and activities should be arranged during summer and winter vacations when the teachers are relatively free from their busy teaching schedule. This training will enlighten the trainees with new ideas of teaching and discussing course content with the students. Through interactive teaching, the quality and quantity of the interest of students can be improved.
Another interviewee shared that teachers and students have failed to do justice with this very subject. The subject has been presented as of the least importance, and least value. But if the curriculum is redesigned on the basis of the principles of curriculum development, and multidisciplinary nature, I think we can make this subject to match international level quality. He also suggested:
We need to redesign this subject so that it is not merely used as a tool of propaganda. We need to redesign it on the basis of the area studies approach. This means that Pakistan's Study is basically a study of different subjects (areas). , For instance, we need to know about its geography in the light of the concepts of the knowledge of Geography, we need to know about its economy, in the light of the concepts of Economics, and we need to know about its politics in the light of the concepts of Political Science. In short, we need to apply and converge different disciplines to develop the course contents of Pakistan Study to represent various facets of Pakistan.
Experts’ Views Regarding Students Concept of Pakistan Study as a Subject
The majority of the respondents were of the view that the students from Intermediate to Master level can understand the course content easily. The Curriculum is designed with a clear intention to enable the students to know about the basic reasons which lead to the creation of Pakistan and to inculcate the spirit of patriotism in them. Another respondent was of the view that concepts are reflecting, for example, some points are taken from History to develop a historical approach and at the same time topics from Archeology are included to give further information about the archeological heritage of Pakistan. Besides this, the details of Pakistan’s political and constitutional history make up a very significant content of the course. This is like if the American Studies is reflecting American culture, political and constitutional details, of America, similar is the case with Pakistan Study which should be the reflection of Pakistan, its culture, politics and heritage. Another interviewee argued that as for as the design of the curriculum is concerned, it is not properly designed according to the basic principle of the requirement of this subject. The curriculum of Pakistan Studies aims to enhance student’s knowledge as an area study approach in which society, culture, people, history and geography are discussed in detail. Moreover, this discipline aims to inculcate knowledge about languages, literature, resources in Pakistan, historical perspectives, the administrative system of the country, foreign relations, political and constitutional developments, human rights, knowledge about renowned Sufis and economic developments in the country (Iqbal et. al, 2016).
The Curriculum of Pakistan Studies Highlights the Importance Of National Integration, Unity and Patriotism
The majority of the respondents argued that national integration, unity and patriotism are definitely highlighted in the curriculum of Pakistan Study. It inculcates the patriotic and cultural values of Pakistan in the minds of the learners. It is the duty of teachers to emphasize national integration, unity and patriotism because without these, the curriculum is useless. To attend all these shortcomings and drawbacks, Higher Education Commission held the meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee from October 2012 to March 2013 at Peshawar. The aim was to bring changes in the curriculum of Pakistan Studies. It was also aimed to promote a sense of patriotism and develop global perspectives. The meeting was successful in achieving its aims and objectives (Curriculum of Pakistan Studies, 2013).
Results Provide Feedback in the Process of Pakistan Studies Curriculum Evaluation
The majority of the respondents were of the view that curriculum evaluation depends upon the approach of a teacher, some teachers are very good teachers they put a lot of hard work, extensively study modern trends in teaching, education and research while some are not fulfilling those requirements. The majority of the teachers are unfortunately not doing justice with the teaching profession. Unfortunately, there is no provision of regular mechanism in which teachers could be oriented and trained for the modern trends in teaching and research. As far as, the objectives of the curriculum are concerned they are not properly defined due to lack of achievable objectives, this also then affects the development of proper assessment tools for this discipline. The standard and assessment should also be aligned properly. So, it can be helpful for teachers as well as students for smooth learning at different levels. The strength of the education system can be assessed by the results and feedback of different stakeholders. The policymaker collects the data and makes possible changes for the improvement of the entire system of education (Case, 2005).
The majority of the respondents were of the view that more than 12 or 15 educational policies have been introduced in Pakistan since 1947. We, however, have failed to correlate our curriculum objectives with the world. We introduce Pakistan as an Islamic country and which has come into being in the name of Islam. We prioritize our religious identity more than cultural identity. This can, in fact, express our desire to lead the Muslim World but in Pakistan Study courses we do not have any details about the Muslim World. The internationalization of the curriculum is very important for the process and development of the curriculum of any society. An internationalized curriculum will engage students effectively in the learning process. Hence, it will develop them as global professionals and citizens. The curriculum is linked to broader issues of social power nationally and internationally. The big problems of the world, such as poverty, the spread of infectious disease, the growing world population and the environmental problems, require that the graduates of tomorrow are not restricted or narrow-minded (Leask, 2015).
Teachers of Pakistan Studies effectively prepare their Students for the Accountability Assessment
Many respondents stated that accountability assessment, testing, and examination, are procedures to properly gauge the knowledge of students. These are technical things, they move within technical parameters. However, they argued that most of the question papers are repeated, since the papers are not designed at a conceptual level, they rather check the memory of the students. Teaching at this particular level is a difficult job. Quality of education is determined by the quality of teaching faculty. The performance of the teachers can be assessed by their competency. The students of today are equipped with new techniques of learning, like for example; internet facility. It is, therefore, needed that the teachers should be provided training, workshops, seminars and conferences on a regular basis to prepare their students for the accountability assessment (Aziz, et.al, 2014).
Pakistan Studies Curriculum increases Assessment Reliability and Consistency in Measuring Students’ Achievement
According to the respondents, National Curriculum has clear objectives set for Pakistan Study to be taught at different levels, but those objectives are sadly not reflected in the syllabus, the course contents, and textbooks. So, there is a need to in fact revise the National Education Policy (NEP) under which an updated education policy could be set. Only then it can give rise to designing proper curriculum, syllabus and suitable assessment techniques to evaluate students. Constant effort is needed to make the curriculum useful and to evaluate its effectiveness. Therefore, revision and improvement in the curriculum are necessary for making provision for the demands and challenges of the society. The curriculum of a subject is considered to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. By looking at the curriculum of a subject, one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of a nation (Hussain et.al, 2013).
In order to bring improvements in the Pakistan Studies Curriculum at Master Level the following recommendations are made in the light of the study:
It is recommended that the curriculum at a master level should be designed with a clear intention to enable the students to know about all aspects of the subject whether it is social, religious, political, geographical so on and so far.
It is recommended that it is the duty of teachers to emphasize the need for national integration, unity and patriotism because without it the curriculum would of no use.
It is further recommended that parameters for accountability assessment, testing and examination should be clearly set and their implementation should be ensured for maximum output in teaching and learning.