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Role of Organizational Public Relations in Image Building of Publics: A Case Study of Coca Cola Pakistan
The Public Relations is becoming more demanding with the diverse practices during recent years. An organization is considered stronger because of effective PR. PR experts are working to enhance the effectiveness of an organization while eliminating the deficiencies of PR which directly affects the organizational strength. This paper aims to explore how effectively public relations build image of its organization, how it gratify its public, refining its policies on the basis of active feedback. Specifically, the purpose was to measure the relationship among organization, employees and its publics. The data was collected through survey method from Coca Cola Pakistan via closed ended questionnaire and taking into account the influence of public opinion. This study concludes with the importance of the prime position of public relations in an organization and its publics in constructing a quality relation and a good image.
Image Building, Public Relations, Organizational Public Relations, PR Campaign
The field of public relations is not much different from any other academic or professional field in practice. Though focusing on a “generalized definition” may not be much effective, for a while the major features and other factors must be considered in a multi-facet notion.
Different people perceive public relations differently because of the vast range of public relations in any organization and in a society as whole. After intensely examining the answers and looking for description of the features of the subject, we mingled up all the philosophies into four points: educational, managerial, operational and reflective. Almost all of the population gave their consent that each of the above mentioned four points plays a basic role in European public relations and must be included in PR. These points highlight the role of PR in an organization and finally point-out its managerial, strategical function and educational level.
Organizational image is comprised of four key segments in which the organizational image has a sway on representatives, target social affairs (customers, associates) and system. These are contemplations about the enterprise, affirmation of the association, image of the organization and the likeness of the firm with its opponents. In this exceptional situation, organizational image is developed in the light of making organization image tries.
On that note, the organization image thought these days’ needs to consolidate nuances that stress each urgent process of the organization, starting from the association’s reason of being to understanding its key purposes and its coordinated effort with outside condition (Altınbaşak, İ., &Yalçın, E. (2010).
The role of organizational image in the beginning of organizational repute, “There is no doubt that organizational image in the sense of organizational image is given more attention than ever before in the history of organized business activity. Their concern is with the images they receive of organizational behavior and results”. The disappointing utilization of such terms as PR, picture, character, brand or impression in the creation of public relations (Grunig, J. E., and Hung-Baesecke, C. J. F. 2015), facilitated a substance examination of 1, 149 articles in 94 exchange and scholastic manifestations and mulled over that the terms PR and brand are utilized of course. Beside character, the greater part of these terms depicts, on a very basic level, a relative marvel: what publics think about a connection. Character outlines what an association thinks about it, said Berger (2007).
Historical Background of Publics Relations
The practice of public relations officially started some 100 years back. Public relation specialists trust that Edward Bernays started the practice of PR during 1920s, while rest of the experts consider Ivy Lee to be the pioneer, who developed his managerial office in 1904 and his very first customer was Pennsylvania Railroad. He officially announced its office in 1906 to enhance its organization. During 1915, Lee enhancing its office, presented a direction to John D. Rockefeller. Lee suggested Rockefeller to use money on poor youth as a tactic for generous incentives, further he developed the Betty Crocker picture.
As per Georgian Historical Commission, the above mentioned details make Lee the creator of public relations, Lee did not foresee his updated systems and techniques over fleeting reports over customers’ issues. He attempted to promote equality as much as possible with the application of these techniqueswhich he had adopted from his uncle Sigmund Freud. Berney was also the twofold nephew of Freud as his mother was the sister of Freud. He linked the concept of his uncle’s mass media science, to market chemicals, cigarettes and bacon.
Objectives of the Study
The basic aim of this study is to explore the results of public relations’ practice in organizational sector of Pakistan and to gauge the relationship among organization, employees and the public. The purpose of this study is to investigate the connection between organizational image and organizational public relationship. Particularly, my aim as a researcher in this study is to explore the impacts of organization public relationship and image of the said organizations. This study will be useful to theorize body of knowledge in practice of org.-public relationship and to highlight the reputation of organizations. Research scholars and practitioners of public relations have concentrated on the relationship and image/repute to gauge effectiveness of public relations. Many social scientists noted a close relation between these ideas.
Smith (2012), in his study under the title of “Public relations identity and the stakeholder organization relationship: A revised theoretical position for public relations scholarship”, observed that the encounter to distinguish the public relations from other communication studies by assessing the idea of the investor, organization and PR.
For example, the omnipresence of the relationship thought in the field of publicizing as seeks after various specialists and experts express that promoting is connected to structure and keeping up an affiliation’s relationship with its publics. Ferguson (2018), in his study “Building theory in public relations, interorganizational connections as a PR model” established that contract on a model emphasis on PR scholarships will increase the number of chances of prolific theory development. The scholar influenced by Kuhn reveals that the individuals who claim themselves as PR scholars have agreed to concentrate on PR research and theory development. He further claims there may be more activities in public relations research but there will not be more development of PR theories. Moreover, the researchers kept up that social organization nowadays is the staggering, perspective in publicizing gift and practice, around two decades back, required a paradigmatic move of promoting examination to associations among affiliations and publics.
Dozier, Grunig, & Amp & Grunig (2001) in their study “Public Relations as Communication Campaign” in the 2nd book of the ‘Excellence Consider Strategy’, joined these properties of value into three parts:
· Departmental point of confinement in complex correspondence practices,
· Exhibited need to the prevalent plan about correspondence,
· Ledingham, J. A. (2006) in his study titled as “Relationship management:
A common theory of PR concluded that individuals who are involved to some extent or mutually supporting organizations, the association’s point of view of PR proposes that equalizing the benefits of organization and publics is done with the supervision of organization public associations. With that point of view, PR is comprehended as the administration job that creates and upholds equally beneficial associations between the publics and organizations.
He also suggested that attributes of various leveled culture, such characteristics of astounding publicizing help the promoting ability to ask moreover as add to everything contemplated legitimate suitability. In framework, the key qualities of magnificent promoting wire the running with practices.
Grunig, L. A., and Grunig, J. E. (2013) in their study on the subject “The relationship between public relations and marketing in excellent organizations: evidence from the IABC study’ observed that initial idea is that organization serves at its best with integral range of perspectives delivered by discrete public relations. Recognizing and essential target audience and from nature. Exercising a symmetrical model of PR to make quality relationship with these crucial publics, considers shed light on publicizing credibility, unmistakable analysts have extended the Excellence speculation to express purposes of research.
The study used fundamental methodology for data collection. Self-controlled survey was used to accumulate fundamental data. Questions were arranged in such a way that the respondents were depended upon to reveal their evaluations and impression of PR on turning the image of organizations among Pakistani publics. Self-guided surveys are believed to be more dominant than very close gathering. The investigation participants were depended upon to take the studies to their working environments where they (staff) would be asked to fill them.
The organization is selected for the study as the company has diverse publics with a strong PR among its target audience especially, while it has a strong hold in Pakistani market. The target of affiliation assurance was to expand sorts of affiliations, which made it possible to favor the projected model across diverse sorts of affiliations.
Coca Cola Pakistan
The Coca Cola is an American based multinational company, developers and merchandisers and revealing professional of non-alcoholic beverages. The organization is known for its Coca Cola brand, fantasized in 1886 by Dr. John Stith Pemberton from Georgia. The Coca Cola brand was bought with US$ 2300 in 1889 by Asa Griggs Candler, who Coke company in 1892 in Atlanta.
The headquarter is based in Atlanta, Georgia and shared in Wilmington, Delaware worked to redesign since 1889, the organization supplied syrup distillate, which was sold throughout the world in selected zones at that time. The association stock is noted on the New York Stock Exchange and is a splash of Dow Jones Industrial Average, the Standard & Poors 500 yearly, the Russel 1000 index and the Russel 1000 GSI. Muthar Kent joins as authorized of the affiliation with James Quincey as CEO and president.
John Pemberton from Columbus, Georgia prepared the first Coca Cola drink and sold it out as an improving beverage in 1886. Pemberton’s professional, F.M Robinson, is recognized as branding the stuffs and developing its logo. Robinson decided the name in its two typical parts (coca means leaves and Kola means nuts). John Pemberton had pleased in the experience of a consolation and left Robinson to mark, advance, correspondingly and hawk Coca-Cola in withdrawal, affected the nutriment nearly as could be standard with the bound spending that he had and succeeded.
Coca Cola Pakistan has reliably had a solid inside perspective on its corporate social obligation, coming to as they did through their business, the lives of a noteworthy number of individuals once reliably, this idea has lead them to determinedly request from themselves the most surprising exertion to address and beat the issues for its money related authorities, by a wide margin the greater part of their assessors and run of the mill society allowed to move around deliberately. Coca Cola trusts this as the course to the presence of mind and advancement of their business.
How Organizational relationships with public (mutual and interchange relationships) will affect the value of organizational image building and organization-public relationship outcomes?
1. How the effective public relations lead to positive image of the organization?
2. How the effective public relations make good image of the organization?
3. How the active public feedback resulted in the good quality of organization-public relationship?
4. How active public feedback is productive for public relation department of the organization?
5. How the public awareness for an organization is prolific for organization-public relationship?
The results showedthe number of responses received from my selected organization. Fifty questionnaires were sent to organization where the following are the number of responses from them. The table shows that 46 employees from the Coca Cola Company have filled the questionnaire with the response rate of 92%.
Total no of Respondents
% of the Respondents
As this study is also helpful for the selected company’s evaluation purpose in future and it can as well be used as a feedback. And it is evident that PR department has the responsibility to respond any query raised by the consumers, stakeholders, public in large or students for their study so the responses in this table show how active the public relations department of an organization is.
This study is concerned with the strength of the PR department of the selected organization in order to investigate the effectiveness of the PR department in the terms of employees and workload. Either the PR department is a small, medium or large in the head count.
Medium Size Department (11-20)
Large Department (20+ people)
The first question of the questionnaire was to classify the respondents in the term of small or large department and the second question was related to the PR department activities with two years and its evaluation of other companies while the third question was related to departmental evaluation within two years. On the other hand, the fourth question was asked from the organization or department regarding funds for research, evaluation or measurement in a routine of its total annual budget for PR programs and activities. The results showed that 46 out of fifty officials from the Coca Cola Company responded that they were working in a large scale organization having more than twenty employees in the department. The response rate was 100% for selecting option 3 of the questionnaire. Whereas no one from the respondents selected option one and two as it both were not applicable for them because this is an international organization having large number of employees in the PR section.
While decoding the question 2 of the questionnaire which dealt with the other companies’ evaluation within two previous years for its PR activities, the officials from Coca Cola public relations department clearly responded with selecting the option 1 informing that they are using other companies’ evaluation tactics for their public relations activities which shows that every company, either it is an international giants or a small national organization, facilitate itself from other companies strategic public relations evaluation. The table elaborated here that 46 officials from Coca Cola selected option 1 ignoring the other two options.
After examining the question 3 which is related to the internal evaluation of PR department activities within two previous years, it is noted that all of the company was conducting its internal evaluations. The evaluation activities of PR department show the involvement in image building of the said organization in the publics of Pakistani Society.
While evaluating question number 4 of the questionnaire, it was noted that all of the selected company was issuing funds for research, evaluation or measurement in a routine of its total annual budget for PR programs and activities as per the PR section officials who were responded to investigation. However my question was not specified here pertaining to the amount funds in terms of value or percentage of the value but the amount or percentage of the amount will be discussed in the coming questions. It is sure that the selected company for this study was highly involved in promoting its image and for this purpose it was using all resources and funds to fully equip its PR department to effectively engage in advancement of its goodwill, product promotion, publicity and reputation of the organization.
As discussed in the earlier data analysis, I just focused on the PR section volume of each company in the terms of quantity. Now I will describe an in-depth analysis of its financial, research and volume of research revaluation in terms of quantity and quality in order to examine how PR department can be more involved in the image building and their strength and weakness keeping aside the publics’ perspective this time.
According to the collected data or information showed that question five of the questionnaire dealt with how the public relations research, evaluation and measurement projects were handled by the organization; either the organization evaluate it internally or third party involvement, may be it can use both the internal and external handling procedure. The options given in the questionnaire were simply focused only on five options. The data received, 14 officials from the Coca Cola PR department with the percentage of 30.44 disclosed that maximum work is done internally, while 20 employees with 40% of the said company noted that maximum work is done by other counsel and/or suppliers. Whereas 12 officials having 24% said that assignments tend to be regularly divided between doing them internally and using other counsel or suppliers. Here it is important to mention that they deny this stance that the company did not conduct any research/ evaluation / measurement work.
While investigating the future involvement of PR section in the research, evaluation and measurement studies in order to know that how each company in enthusiastic to expand its research, evaluation and measurement studies or to know that what amount of expansion is planned and it is dead sure that future always depended on the past and present work done and performance of the section. More expansion can be considered further involvement with its publics.
The question six of the questionnaire which focused on the volume of PR research, evaluation and measurement studies that its department or organization carries out yearly or during coming two years,
The data showed that 30 employees of the Coca Cola company with percentage of 65.22 revealed that the company’s PR research, evaluation and measurement studies will be increased with the volume of 10% or more while 14 employees of percentage 30.43 noted that the Coca Cola will increase its volume of PR research, evaluation and measurement studies from 1 to 9% by selecting the option 2 of the questionnaire. However, only two officials having percentage 4.35 from the said company recorded that the volume will remain the same without any significant difference. Meanwhile, no one from the said company informed about decreasing the volume of PR research, evaluation and measurement studies in coming future.
While investigating the annual research budget for PR, evaluation or measurement projects it was noted that employees of Coca Cola Company revealed the information as 10 employees of the company with the percentage of 21.74 were of the opinion that the annual budget for Public Relations section’s research activities will be 1-5% whereas 33 of its employees with the percentage of 71.74 said that the annual budget of PR section must be in-between 6-10%, however 3 employees with the percentage of 6.52% said PR department’s annual budget for research should be allocated till 15percent.
After collecting the information received from the respondents of the PR department of the selected organization, the results showed that 46 employees of the Coca Cola company which were even the total respondents as well, responded that the particular news story was broadcasted and conveyed to the audiences while 40 employees respondent with the stance that the message conveyed through the Publication are on-aired was also understood by the audiences however, 30 number of employees of the organization responded that the event or news story published also achieved the target and they observed some behavioral changes in the audiences through that specific news event or campaign.
The collected data/information showed that almost all the respondents from the Coca Cola Company have the opinion that they prefer to launch a campaign or publish new story in the print media while 35 respondents have the stance that the news or message published through print media are more understandable and audiences easily understand the message conveyed through print media. However, 25 respondents agreed with the effectiveness of the Print media campaign and stance that print media have strong impact on the publics and its opinion building where they answered that after launching any campaign or published news story in print media, they noticed behavioral changes regarding company image.
The results showed that the 30 respondents/employees from Coca Cola Company have the opinion that targeted journalists used to convey the message to the audiences as they have some influences on the public opinion while 20 employees responded that message or news/event conveyed through targeted journalists are more understandable and receivable while 10 employees of the company have the stance that the message or news story planted through targeted journalists have the worth to change the behavior of the target audience.
Answering the Questions
After thoroughly analyzing the collected data and conducting the statistical tests now I am able to test my developed hypotheses and research questions.
How Effectively Public Relations Build an Image of Any Organization?
PR department of any organization plays a vital role in creating image building and positive reputation of the organization. PR section with the help of its research activities, press releases etc. However my results showed PR will support an association to reach its goals successfully and smoothly if it more active and effective especially. Public relations does not create a positive image of an aimless team. For me publics’ participation is a wonderful activity of public relations that provide you free marketing of the best benevolent. The quotation “you have to give to receive” fits in the business. Prospects for public service proliferates, from general commitments to those which requires few minutes, not all of the expenditures you spend on your contribution to social activities with community deductible business expenditures.
How the Effective Public Relations make good Reputation of the Organization.
My results showed the reputation depends upon the relation between PR and Organization. Particularly, the results revealed how PR and organization relationships affect the reputation of organizations in a causal model.
Results found a stronger effect of attitudinal behavior on the quality of relationship outcomes. It is difficult to develop and maintain good image or to create a positive from the negative one, whereas the good repute of the organization be easily replaced with bad one.
It is unethical way to develop a good reputation and immorally developed reputation is at high risk than those that are not.
Development of image building takes time, rapidly acquired positive image vanish soon.
Development of image depends upon the activities of PR section but it depends upon other consequences of organizations’ relationships, abilities and other factors.
How the active public feedback resulted in the good quality of organization-public relationship?
The results of data collected showed that PR department of any organization refines its policies and research activities on the basis of public’s feedback. It is the public feedback which helps any organization to redesign its products and to improve the quality of the products.
How active public feedback is productive for public relation department of the organization?
The results of this study concluded that if public/consumers/customers of an organization actively give their feedback regarding the activities of PR section, it leads PR officials to develop the policies which can bring behavioral and attitudinal change (outcome) among its publics and also to overcome its cons.
How the Public Awareness for an organization is prolific for Organization-Public Relationship?
On the basis of data collected and its interpretation, it is concluded that public response on the policies and research activities organized by public relations section becomes very productive to refine products of an organization and to maintain a good organization-public relationship.
Subsequent to translating the information gathered through study, I examine and investigate how these hierarchical public relations division assumed its job in the image building of publics with the endeavors and misguided judgment amid the procedure.
Coca Cola: A Public Mouth Word
Apparently the Coca Cola Corporation is the world's greatest nonalcoholic beverage association which guarantee or grant and market more than 500 nonalcoholic refreshment brands, which cluster into going with characterization gatherings: sparkling soft drink pops; water, improved sports drinks and drinking water; dairy, juice and plant-based refreshments; coffee and tea and charged beverages. The affiliation has and exhibit four (4) of the world's fundamental five (5) nonalcoholic shining soft drink brands: Diet Coke, Coca-Cola, Sprite and Fanta. Completed refreshment things bearing their logos, retailed in the USA since 1886, are presently retailed in more than two hundreds 200 countries and areas. It makes their checked refreshment things open to buyers all through the world through their arrangement of free bundling assistants, dealers, brokers and dealers similarly as Corporation had or measured bundling and apportionment exercises the world's supreme beverage movement scheme.
Hon (1998) inspected how pros survey publicizing as a framework for demonstrating promoting sufficiency to their affiliations. Sriramesh, Kim, found that diverse authorities lead pleasing appraisal because of nonappearance of focal points and weight. Takasaki (1999) considered the connection between legitimate culture and superbness in publicizing.
Sriramesh et al. revealed that sharing culture and the prospects of inner communication in encouraging are firmly relevant, which proposes that symmetrical inside correspondence may be the area point for publicizing specialists to influence progressive culture and consequently to begin an unflinching system toward miracle in promotion.
Refreshments having logos controlled by and approved to speak to 1.9 billion or more of the around 61 billion allocations of all liquid refreshment consumed worldwide reliably. The association trusts our flourishing and depends upon our ability to connect with buyers by giving them a wide arrangement of beverage choices to meet their needs and lifestyles. I am sure that the accomplishment further depends upon the limit of our kinfolk to execute feasibly and reliably. Regardless, the affiliation objective is to use it Company's advantages our brands, cash related quality, unrivaled allotment structure, overall reach, the capacity and strong obligation of our organization and accomplices to end up being dynamically forceful and to revive advancement such that makes a motivator for stakeholders.
The connection remained active under the State laws of Delaware in September 1919 and winning to the matter of Georgian organization through a comparative label that had been dealt with-in 1892. Working Sections and the Corporation's working edifice is the explanation behind our inside budgetary declaring, In December 31, 2018, its working edifice joined the going with working pieces, which are every so often suggested as "working social occasions" or "get-togethers":
• Asia Pacific
• Latin America
• Middle East and Africa and
• North America
Packing Investments working edifice as in 31 December 2018 also comprised in Corporation, which involves (2) two fragments:
(1) An inside concentrated on key exercises, approach & organization,
(2) A pleasing organizations affiliation concentrated on both improving and systematizing key esteem based methodology and offering assistance to strength parts with overall focal points of flawlessness.
January 2019 developed another working section, Global Ventures, consolidating the outcomes of Costa Limited ("Costa"), got on 3rd January, 2019, and the delayed consequences of irreproachable and Doğadan associations similarly as costs made by flow management understandings with Coca Cola and Monster Beverage Organization ("Monster"). Imply Memo 22 of Minutes to Joined Economic Reports set forward in Part 2nd, "Thing 8. Spending reports and Supplementary Data" of the report for information as for the Costa acquiring. In any case, to the degree that refinements within working bits are substantial to an appreciation of trade with everything taken into account, the delineation of business on a unified reason.
In case Coca-Cola is in the image the officials business, by then it is fundamental to recognize the "not by any means positive" portions of Coca-Cola's exercises, in a manner of speaking, what exercises does Coca-Cola legitimize by ensuring they are "advancing splendidly?" in their distinctive CSR programs. (Richey, 2011).
Coca-Cola's remote bundling plants are stacked down with difficulty, different reports reveal how Coca-Cola has disregarded adjacent systems' needs, water extraction rules, human rights, and sovereign nation states. Additionally the essential assess that Coca-Cola advocates for shocking beverages through compelling displaying methodologies in schools, at general recreations, for instance, the FIFA World Cup, and in solace stores (Blanding, 2010).
These records counter Coca-Cola's believability with respect to the EKOCENTER's arrangement to "improve the thriving of systems" (The Coca-Cola Company, 2013a). Perhaps the most promoted is Coca-Cola's water extraction practices in Plachimada, where organize activists over the long haul obliged Coca-Cola to shut down a plant (Ghosh, 2010). Regardless, that arrival in 2004, and beginning late Coca-Cola's eye on the purchasing power.
Public Relation: The Driving Force for Coca Cola
The Coca Cola offers an amazing and extensive range of refreshments to its consumers and buyers and frequently investigates capable beverage alliance s to get developments in its markets. To get close to its buyers and to gratify its customers in their increasing requirements, Coca Cola has developed a one stop refreshment point with a vast range of its products.
Fombrun et al., 2000) suggested a specific area supporting the organization-government relations, monitor and organize relationships.
As an association, Coca Cola is constantly planning to enhance its customers’ relationship. Coca Cola Pakistan is working with its extreme customers to make vast range of relations. Coca Cola works with its customers on different forums, the executives and volumes and to ensure to facilitate its every customers revealing instructions.
Fombrun, Gardberg, and Barnett (2000), were overseeing endeavors, which the overall population is basic. In America, for instance, each administration has open issues division, which handles open information and promoting. The officers in these divisions are dominatingly phrased with relegating a more broad open commitment than open information, which the last involves, simply spread of Public information or introduction. The purpose behind open issues is to develop a talk between the association and the system.
In order to give progressively one of a kind and explicit exhibiting of things, philosophy is to bunch the business parts and make concentrated on undertakings for each buyer section or flow channel. Our central channels are little retailers, "on reason" usage, for instance, restaurants and bars, supermarkets and outcast wholesalers. Proximity in these channels includes an extensive and bare essential examination of the getting models and tendencies of various social affairs of refreshment purchasers in all of the particular sorts of territories or apportionment channels. In light of this examination, tailor the thing, esteem; packaging and assignment methods to meet the specific requirements and abuse the ability of every channel.
Suggestions and Recommendations
In the light of my revelations I need to prescribe for future examinations:
1. Organization-public relationship and the image building as empowering factors explicitly ask about particular research framework.
2. Thorough examination of image building formation.
3. Non-recursive associations between PR office and publics in image building.
As an issue of first criticalness of this examination found the relationship between PR division, connection and publics. This examination will be valuable to explore future image building, activities of PR, unequivocally as planning segments. For instance in future examinations, genius can look into the effects of good estimations of an association and social commitment, on wonderful lead of publics/clients/purchasers towards the connection, satisfying by the quality work of advancing and picture working of an alliance.
In addition, future analysts can investigate picture building plan more absolutely than this examination. For instance, the specialist can ask about how dynamic image building has been made through various floats of electronic life/new media as social relations and can explore control of online zones (long range social correspondence objectives, sites or exchange trades on the web) in image building. Another further proposed examination can be examination of the effects of different levelled publicizing works out, showing correspondence and propelling/presentation on picture working of affiliations.