Comparative Analysis of the US and Chinese Foreign Policy Towards South Asia; Implications for Pakistan
South Asia has its geopolitical significance due to its proximity with the oil-rich Middle Eastern States, natural resourcerich Central Asia and economically developed states of South-East Asian States. South Asia has two nuclear states; Pakistan
and India. Since the end of 2nd World War, the USA has been present which has provided stability to this region. The USA
had extended its investment and aid to Pakistan in during cold war which had maintained a Balance of Power between India
and Pakistan. U.S. articulated response against Soviet invasion in 1979 and later entered in Afghanistan in 2001 on the
pretext of WoT. Chinese foreign policy has fostered stability in South Asian region. Through its "Win-Win" policy, China
has very firm economic relations with all South Asian states. Thr ...
1-Waseem Ishaque Assistant Professor, Department of International Relations, National University of Modern Languages (NUML) Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Rizwana Karim Abbasi Associate Professor/HOD, Department of International Relations, National University of Modern Languages (NUML) Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Usha Rehman LLM Scholar, Department of Law, AWKUM Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
Strategic Partnership, Balance of Power, Peaceful Co-Existence.
Role of Media in Minimizing Religious Extremism and Ethnic Instability in Balochistan, Pakistan
This paper attempts to search out different conflicting issues that caused unrest in Balochistan from almost two decades. The
incident of twin towers 9/11 has changed global order, and its impact and repercussion were felt in the barren mountains
of Balochistan. The is the fifth insurgency in Balochistan, and from over 50 years the issue remained unresolved, beside
nationalists movement in Balochistan extremist religious factor also played a pivotal role in the escalation of unrest. This
paper shed light on to the historical perspective of both the Religious and ethnic conflicting issue, and it will also look into
the media status that how it can play its role in minimizing both these conflicting issues. The study is descriptive in nature,
and this study will find out some possible s ...
1-Babrak Niaz Assistant Professor, Department of Media Studies, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan.2-Ali Hassan Lecturer, Department of Media Studies, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Sadaf Irtaza Assistant Professor, Department of Media Studies, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan.
Investigating the Drivers and Future Paradigms of Social Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries: Empirical Study of Pakistan
The purpose of this study is to determine the drivers of social entrepreneurship in a developing country. Institutional theory is applied to check the impact of different institutions on social entrepreneurship intentions in Pakistan. For this purpose, three independent variables: coercive environment, normative environment, and cognitive environment have been used, and the dependent variable is social entrepreneurship intention. Perceived feasibility has been taken as a mediating variable. A sample of 357 is selected, and data has been collected through questionnaires surveys from different university students of Pakistan. Data analysis is done through descriptive analysis. Nvivo 20 is used to explore the future paradigms of social entrepreneurship in Pakistan. The results of his study i ...
1-Sana Shuja Ahmad Khan MPhil Scholar, Business School, University of Central Punjab, Punjab, Pakistan2-Syed Arslan Haider MPhil Scholar, Business School, University of Central Punjab, Punjab, Pakistan3-Anita Shuja Visiting Lecturer, Department of Education, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
Intentions, Institutions, Social entrepreneurship.
Alternative Frameworks in Learning the Speaking Skills of English Language Among Prospective Teachers: Looking for best Possible Reasons
The present study was conducted to diagnose alternative frameworks and to explore its best possible reasons in English speaking of prospective teachers. The present study was a case study. Diagnostic oral test and interviews were used as research tools. The three hundred (300) prospective teachers of B.Ed. (1.5 years) and BS (Hons) classes were selected purposively as a sample for an oral diagnostic test. The fifteen (15) prospective teachers who possessed more alternative frameworks were selected purposively for a semi-structured interview. Data were analyzed qualitatively using a thematic approach. Moreover, data triangulation was used to compile the results of the test and interview. The study explored the pronunciation, grammar, article, and alternative prepositional frameworks in lear ...
1-Muzammila Akram Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Training, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Hafeez Ullah PhD Scholar, Department of Educational Training, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan. 3-Nasreen Akhter Professor, Department of Education, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
Alternative Frameworks, Speaking Skill, Prospective Teachers, English Language, Reasons Behind Alternative Frameworks
Influence of Westernized Culture on Women Via Television Drama and Films: A Survey of Lahore District
The study is conducted to investigate the "Influence of westernized culture on eastern women via tv drama and films." Tv
drama and films play an important role in women and youth life as it influences their lifestyle, dressing sense and language
as well. In this research, the researcher wants to know the influence of western culture on eastern women. The data was
collected from a sample of 130 women in Lahore via an online questionnaire survey. Five research questions were developed
in this research which focuses on the influence of western culture on eastern women, their lifestyle, dressing sense, their
speaking style and for how long the influence remains on them. The researcher analyzed that there are choices to women
whether to influenced or not but the western culture replacing ...
1-Tanveer Hussain Assistant Professors, School of Media and Communication Studies, University of Management and Technology Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Ashraf Iqbal Incahrge/Assistant Professor, Department of Mass Communication, GC University, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Asif Yaseen Officer Incharge, Livestock Experiment Station, Chak Katora, Hasil Pur, District Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
Identification of the Learning Choices of Undergraduate Students in District Bahawalpur
Aim of the study was to identify the learning choices of undergraduate students. The key objectives of the study were (a) to
examine the Impact of learning choices on academic achievement, (b) to find out the factors that influence the learning
choices of undergraduate students. Nature of the study was descriptive, and the survey was used to explore the reasons from
the students about their learning choices. Total 240 BS Students from Higher Education Institutions of District Bahawalpur
were selected randomly. The questionnaire was the main source of collecting information from undergraduate students.
Results of the study identified that majority of the undergraduate students face difficulty in choosing the right learning
course while less than half of the students were satisfied wit ...
1-Safura Fatima M Phil Scholar, Department of Education, National College of Business Administration & Economics, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Sidra Rasheed PhD Scholar, Department of Educational Training, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Tehrima Sundas M Phil Scholar, Department of Education, National College of Business Administration & Economics, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
Effect of Multi-Channeled Cable TV and Varying Demographics on Political Enlightenment of Youth
Mass media is considered to be one of the important agents for the enlightenment of the audience towards better living.
Media consumption has taken new trends due to availability of multi-channelled cable television on a large scale. It was
hypothesized that the increase in media consumption might have enhanced the political maturity of viewers and make them
more productive for society. For data collection through a survey questionnaire, multistage cluster sampling technique was
used. Results of the study confirmed the fact that cable TV played a positive role in enhancing the political knowledge of
youth. Moreover, the youth of cable TV areas was found to be more mature politically as compared to the youth of noncable TV areas. The study concluded that if more number of options is av ...
1-Muhammad Khalique Kamboh Department of Geography, Government Postgraduate College Samanabad, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Imran Muslim Lecturer, Department of Mass Communication, Government College University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Hafiz Muhammad Muddser Department of Mass Communication, Riphah International University, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
Political Maturity, Youth, Demographic Variables, Cable Television.
Workaholism, Burnout and Career Stagnation: An Analysis of Barriers to Motivation among Faculty of Public Sector Universities in Quetta
This paper aims to recognize the factors that hamper the motivation among teaching staff of public sector universities in
Quetta. The study was conducted by surveying 303 people who were a part of the teaching sector. The questionnaire was
administered to all the participants and respondents recognized three main factors that are barriers to motivation such as
burnout, workaholism, career stagnation and with the inclusion of mediating variable (self-efficacy). Two major tests were
applied, such as; multiple regression to compute the effect of one variable on other variable and bootstrapping was applied
to compute mediation indirect effect. The results indicated a significant negative effect of burnout, workaholism and career
stagnation on motivation. The results also stated the signi ...
1-Hira Shabbir MS Scholar, Institute to Management Sciences, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan.2-Saubia Ramzan Professor, Faculty of Management Sciences, Business and Information Technology, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan.3-Jameel Ahmad Assistant Professor, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan.
Burnout, Workaholism, Career Stagnation, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, Teacher and Barriers
A Study of Motivational Factors for Pre-service Teachers' Choice of Teaching as a Career
This study explored 270 student-teachers' attitudes towards teaching profession in two public sector universities in Pakistan. A self-developed questionnaire was used to collect data. The questionnaire included 5-point Likert scaled items. The results of an initial descriptive analysis showed that 'teaching as a source of lifelong learning received the highest positive response. While 'I chose a teaching career because I had no other choice' was the lowest. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that there were three major motivational factors in choosing teaching career: (1) Relatively easy availability (2) being more respected job, and (3) teaching being a relaxing job. Comparisons on demographics showed no significant difference between universities, as t (268) = 3.476, p ...
1-Kamal Ud Din Lecturer, Department of Educational Development, Karakoram International University, Gilgit Balitstan, Pakistan.2-Fasiha Altaf Ph.D. Scholar, Institute of Education and Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. 3-Raima Mubashar MPhil Scholar, Institute of Education and Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Teacher Education, Teacher Attitude, Teacher Motivation, Teaching Career
Natural Disaster Reporting: A Content Analysis of Locust Infestation Coverage in Pakistani Newspaper
This study analyzed the quality of disaster reporting by the daily Dawn on the locust attack of 2019-20 in Pakistan through the prevention, preparedness, response and recovery (PPRR) phases of disaster management. The findings showed that; (1) the amount of coverage given to the disaster was insufficient in face of the severity of the crisis. (2) The crisis was covered in the current affairs lens inadequate for disaster coverage which requires a comprehensive approach and sustained focus. (3) Due to the absence of maps and charts the coverage was unable to establish a clear timeline of the disaster and the response, orientation of the scale and course of the locust attack in the minds of the public thus failed to merit the due attention of the donors and volunteerism in the people. It is c ...
1-Amir Bajwa Assistant Professor, Department of Mass Communication, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Ifra Iftikhar Assistant Professor, Department of Mass Communication, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Irem Sultana Assistant Professor, Department of Mass Communication, Government College University, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
Exploring Personal Deixis in Western Music: A Corpus-Based Study
Pragmatics informs us about the relationship between the use of language and its context. This relationship is identified through person deixis. This research interprets the reference meaning of personal deixis and looks at the most frequent personal deixis used in the lyrics of male and female English singers. This research uses a corpus method for the analysis. The data was collected from online sources to compile corpora of songs sung by male and female singers. The research has adopted both qualitative and quantitative approaches for the analysis of corpora. The corpus was tagged using parts-of-speech tagger (POS Tagger) and analyzed using AntConc software. The findings suggest that personal deixis are frequently used by both male and female singers. ...
1-Arshad Ali Assistant Professor, Department of English, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan. 2-Athar Rashid Assistant Professor, Department of Governance & Public Policy, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Ameer Sultan Lecturer, Department of English, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Pragmatics, Deixis, Song Lyrics, Western Music, Corpus-Based Study
On-Campus Drug Consumption: Exploring the Trends and Patterns in Metropolitan Cities of Pakistan
This study is aimed at inquiring trends and patterns of illicit drug consumption in educational institutions of metropolitan cities of Pakistan. The quantitative research design was employed, where data was collected from 4997 students (3940 boys and 1057 girls) of public and private schools, colleges and universities of Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore and Peshawar through self-administered questionnaires. The study sample was selected through multistage cluster sampling. The study found that overall (19.6%) students used any sort of drug at least once in lifetime whereas, (3.7%) were found to be daily consumers. Worrisomely, about half of the students (49.5%) had exposure to drugs in their teenage and further (7%) even under age 10. The ratio of female student's drug exposure prior to age 10 w ...
1-Saba Aslam Khan PhD Scholar, Department of Sociology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Imran Sabir Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Rahat Shah PhD Scholar, Department of Sociology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Drug Abuse, Educational Institutions, Trends, Patterns, Teenage, Pakistan
Re-Inscription of Black History/Body in Morrison's Beloved and Paradise
This article contends how Toni Morrison has used her black fiction to reject the dominant conceptions of reality and truth
constructed by the white pahllogocentric discourses that tended to perpetuate white power interests. The poststructuralist
assumption that knowledge and reality are socially constructed phenomenon provides useful insight into Morrison's narrative
strategies and helps understand how, on one hand, she represents the ways the history of the black Africans had been badly
disfigured in the white discourse resulting in the construction of the negative stereotypes of the black people as barbarians,
savages, and uncivilized people whose mythical history and social values were invalidated as inauthentic and savage that
needed the enlightening intervention of the white Eur ...
1-Mumtaz Ahmad Assistant Professor, Department of English, Government Guru Nanak Postgraduate College, Nankana Sahib, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Asim Aqeel Assistant Professor, Department of Humanities & Linguistics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Sahar Javaid Lecturer, Department of English, Government College University, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
Black Feminism, Black History, Body, Morrison, Pahllogocentric Discourse
Trade Competitiveness of Pakistan's Fruits and Vegetables in World Market
Fruit and vegetable crops are a priority in agriculture by virtue of their vast potential in improving the socio-economic
conditions of the country. To investigate the international competitiveness by analyzing the comparative and competitive
advantage of vegetables and fruits from Pakistan, Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA), Relative Export Advantage
(RXA), Relative Import Advantage( RMA), Relative Trade Advantage (RTA) and Laffey Index used as analytical tools. For
this purpose, time-series data set from the International Trade Center from 2011-2019. Findings revealed that Pakistan
maintained a comparative advantage and competitiveness in imports of fruits while disadvantaging vegetables. Even though
Pakistan has export competitiveness over its rivals but is still importing a hu ...
1-Hira Manzoor Department of Commerce, Govt. College of Woman University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Safyan Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Fabia Manzoor Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Monitoring Process and Performance of Teachers: A Quantitative Study of Primary Schools in Punjab
Monitoring is such an organized way of data collection and analysis regarding any program that executes during the phase
of implementation. This study aimed at studying the process of monitoring and exploring its correlation with the performance
of primary school teachers. The objectives of the study involved exploring different aspects of the monitoring process and its
relationship with the performance of primary school teachers. A quantitative research design was employed. The study was
descriptive in nature. The sample consisted of 400 teachers, including 200 male teachers and 200 female teachers, using a
convenient sampling technique. A research instrument was developed by the researchers and validated through a pilot study.
Data were analyzed and interpreted by using (SPSS 21.0) ...
1-Syed Kamran Ali Shah PhD Scholar, University of Education, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Muqaddas Butt Assistant Professor, University of Education, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Mubashar Nadeem Assistant Professor, University of Education, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
The primary law on the custody of the child in Pakistan is contained in the Guardian and Wards Act, 1890. It has been in
existence since aeon without substantial amendments over the period. Each parent goes to every extent to interpret the legal
provisions to establish his/ her custody of the ward/ child. The lacunas in the legal provisions have resulted in far-reaching
consequences for the ward. This article tends to focus on the deficiencies existing in the prevailing laws and traces the
development in the legal framework on the subject. It highlights the pertinent factors concerning the custody of the ward
that has been established by the judicial interpretation of the legal provisions on custody. The article concludes that the
deficiencies need to be addressed within the legal bo ...
1-Zaheer Iqbal Cheema Assistant Professor, University Law College, New Campus, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Jawwad Riaz Assistant Professor, University Law College, New Campus, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Ali Nawaz Khan Assistant Professor, University Law College, New Campus, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Child Custody in Pakistan, Custodial Rights on Custody of the Child, Law on Child Custody, Determining the Custody of the Ward
Anthropometrics Characteristics and Physical Fitness of Private and Government School Boys of Lodhran, Punjab, Pakistan
This study is the comparison of the anthropometric and physical fitness of schoolboys. Data was collected from government
(n = 125) and private (n = 125), ten -to- years old. An independent t-test was applied to compare stature, body mass,
girths, lengths, push-ups, standing broad jump, agility and 30-meter dash. Results showed the private schoolboys were
significantly superior to the government schoolboys in body mass, girths and inferior in 30-meter dash and agility. It is
concluded the private school boys have a better option of food intake and transportation to reach school than the government
schoolboys. Therefore, private school boys were higher in body mass and girths than the government schoolboys. It also
concluded physical activity like walking play a vital role in the grow ...
1-Muhammad Imran Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Zia ul Haq Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Badar Habib Lecturer, Department of Physical Education & Sports Science, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.