Education Policies, Discourse of Ideology and the Construction of National Identity in Pakistan: A Critical Analysis
National Governments have controlled education policy to construct
national identity according to the agenda of the government of the time.
Education policy promotes discourse of ideology to construct national identity. Islam has
always influenced formulation of education policies in Pakistan. This article explores the
impact of change in governments upon discourse of ideology in education policies in the
construction of national identity. It is based on primary data collected from education policies
of 1947, 1959, 1969, 1970, 1972, 1979, 1992, 1998 and 2009. Discourse analysis reveals the
fact that governments in Pakistan have used divergent discourses of Islamic ideology. The
discontinuity in discourse of Islamic ideology has obstructed nation-building resulting in
identity cris ...
1-Shafiq Qurban PhD Scholar, Department of Politics and IR,International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Husnul Amin Associate Professor,Department of Politics and IR, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Education Policy, Enlightened Moderation, Islamic Ideology, Muslim Ummah, National Identity, Regime
The Portrayal of Pak-US Relations in Print Media: An Analysis of War on Terror and Militancy in Pakistan during the Republican and the Democratic Regimes
This study has examined how the leading Pakistani and American newspapers portrayed the war on terror and
militancy in Pakistan during Republican (George W. Bush) and Democratic (Barack Obama) regimes. All the
editorials were analyzed which were published on the subjects during the timeline of sixteen years (January 2001 - January 2017).
The results show that both the newspapers are independent, balanced and suggestive. Overall coverage of editorials remained higher
(59%) in the democratic regime as compared to that of the republican regime (41%). On the issue of Pakistan's support in the war
against terrorism, both the newspapers gave mixed framing. Dawn gave Pakistan more favorable portrayal. NYT remained more
unfavorable towards Pakistan, especially during democratic regime. The s ...
1-Aatif Iftikhar PhD Scholar,Department of Media Studies,The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Zubair Shafiq Assistant Professor,Department of Media Studies, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
War on Terror, Militants, Democratic, Republican, Pakistan, United
Freedom of Expression: A Comparative Study of Ideological Conflict between Islam And the West
(FOE) is a basic human right, unanimously
accepted all over the world; however it has no universal definition. The
Islam condemns the Blasphemy strongly, whereas the West takes it as an offshoot of FOE and
a symbol of democracy. This paper is an attempt to investigate, to what extent the Islamic
concept of FOE is consistent with the Western concept? Its main objective is to point out the
real cause of the rift and to discover recipe which could be used in curing the bleeding sore
of humanity. Methodologically, qualitative research technique is used; analytical approach
is adopted. Principal books, Scholarly articles, and academic writings are especially
consulted. It is concluded that all the basic human rights have limits; therefore FOE must
also be aligned. In this way, a common ...
1-Tasaddaq Hussain PhD Research Scholar,Department of Media and Communication Studies,Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Aslam Pervez Professor,Department of Media and Communication Studies,Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan, KP, Pakistan3-Shahid Minhas Assistant Professor, Department of Media Studies, GIFT University Gujranwala, Punjab, Pakistan.
Freedom of Expression, Ideological Conflict, Islam and West.
A Regional Study on Spillover Perspective: Analyzing the Underlying Mechanism of Emotional Exhaustion between Family Incivility, Thriving and Workplace Aggression
This study intends to scrutinize the underlying mechanism of employee
exhaustion in the relationship between family incivility, and outcomes of
thriving and workplace aggression with the spillover theory serving as the overarching
explanation. The data was collected through distribution of 300 self-reported questionnaires
administered in a single wave. The final sample turned out to be 246 workers of service sector
organizations operating in Rawalpindi and Islamabad region. The data analysis revealed
acceptable model fit indices for CFA conducted for full measurement model. Subsequently,
SEM was used for testing different structural paths. The statistical findings of the study
confirm that emotional exhaustion serves as underlying mechanisms, which validate the
assumptions of spil ...
1-Sidrah Al Hassan Lecturer, Faculty of Management Sciences, International Islamic University Islamabad, Pakistan. 2-Tasneem Fatima Assistant Professor,Faculty of Management Sciences,International Islamic University Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Imran Saeed Lecturer, Institute of Business Management Sciences,The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.
Family Incivility, Emotional Exhaustion, Thriving, Workplace Aggression and Spillover Theory
Harnessing the New Modes of Learning: Teachers’ Perceptions and Classroom Assessment Practices for Students’ Over-all Development at Under Graduate Level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Currently, for improving students' learning, the focus is made solely on
teaching strategies whereas assessment is practiced just for auditing and
overlooks the improvement in students' learning. To this effect, a qualitative approach is
executed to showcase teachers' perceptions regarding the use of classroom assessment
practices for students' overall development. The sample of the study comprises 20 teachers,
randomly selected, from five public sector universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Relevant data were collected through semi-structured interview schedules while analyzed by
adopting thematic approach. Cultural sensitivity was ensured during data collection process.
The results revealed that teachers strongly asserted the use of classroom assessment practices
for stud ...
1-Shahzadi Seema PhD. Scholar,Institute of Education and Research (IER), University of Peshawar, KP, Pakistan. 2-Amjad Reba Assistant Professor,Institute of Education and Research (IER), University of Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.3-Waqar Un Nisa Faizi Assistant Professor, Department of Education,Islamia College Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.
New modes of Learning, Classroom Assessment Practices, Students’ Over-all Development, Teachers Perceptions, KP Universities, Pakistan
Passivization in Pashto and English: A Comparative Analysis
The present research work intends to analyze and compare the sentence
structures in English and Pashto Language. The researcher has focused
mainly on the passivization process in this regard. The primary reason for the research is to
highlight the similarities and differences between the passivization processes in both
languages. Moreover, the researcher has delimited the study to tenses used in both the
languages. The study follows qualitative method of research where the researcher has
collected the data for the English passivization from the various grammar books while for
the collection of data in the form of Pashto passive structures, the researcher has used test
as research tools. The researcher has compared the passivization process in each tense
between English and Pashto ...
1-Akbar Ali Assistant Professor, Department of English,FATA University, Kohat, KP, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Anees Lecturer, Department of English, FATA University, Kohat, KP, Pakistan.3-Bilal Khan Lecturer, Department of English,FATA University, Kohat, KP, Pakistan.
Curriculum Provisions for Classroom Instruction and Students’ Self-Efficacy at Secondary Level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Classroom instruction, as a key feature of formal education, primarily
provided in the National Curriculum that aimed to materialize the
curricular targets. This study was conducted with the objective to analyze the provisions for
classroom instruction in the National Curriculum at secondary level that affects self-efficacy
of the students in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, a North-western province of Pakistan. The study was
qualitative by design and conducted by employing Foucauldian discourse analysis of the core
curriculum of Urdu, Mathematics, and Islamiyat for the sources of self-efficacy. The study
found that the provisions, were either ignored or made idealistic without concrete provision
in the classroom, proved to be pepped talk and were devoid of practical utility in the
classroom f ...
1-Shah Faisal PhD Scholar,Department of Education,International Islamic University Islamabad, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Nabi Bux Jumani Professor,Department of Education, International Islamic University Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Seema Gul Associate Professor,Department of Psychology,International Islamic University Islamabad, Pakistan.
Exploring Determiners of Achievements of Degree Students (Pakistan) in Academic English
English is an international language and is understood almost all over the
world. There are different determiners that effect the level of achievement
in learning English. The main concern of the study was to find out the relationships between
them. The descriptive correlational study design was selected with a multilayer sampling
technique having sample of 320 Degree level students form four universities of Pakistan.
Data was collected and the correlation was found through Pearson correlation. It was found
that many factors including Anxiety, interest, attitude, and self-confidence had strong
correlation with academic achievements of students. Some practical implication was
suggested including the training of teachers in a better way. ...
1-Saira Maqbool Assistant Professor,Department of English,Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Rabia Bahoo Lecturer,Department of Education, The Government Sadiq College Women University Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Shakir Lecturer,Educational Training,The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
Antecedents and Consequences of Employee's Greed: An Empirical Examination (Evidence from Pakistan)
The study aimed to analyze empirically the relationships among job strain,
employee greed, and workplace deviance. The data is collected from 645
bank employees and analyzed by using structural equation modeling. The analysis reveals a
significant impact of job strain on greed and workplace deviance. Moreover, in the
relationship between job strain and workplace deviance, employee greed is a significant
mediator. The study bridges the gap in the literature of greed theory by incorporating the
mechanism of employee greed in job strain and workplace deviance. In the practical milieu,
the study explains greed phenomenon in a novel cultural context, suggesting human resource
managers to better understand employee psychology. ...
1-Qlander Hayat PhD Scholar,Department of Management & Social Sciences,Capital University of Science & Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan. 2-Sayyed Muhammad Mehdi Raza Naqvi Associate Professor,Department of Management & Social Sciences, Capital University of Science & Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Linking Human Resource Practice with Work Happiness Through Employee Resilience: Evidence from Pakistan
It is very important for the organization to keep its intellectual resources
updated and ready for uncertain situations. This study aimed to explore the
direct association between HR practices i.e. (job design, information flow, employee
development, and employee benefits) and work happiness, and mediating role of employee
resilience as well. The data were collected from 315 employees through self-administered
questionnaires working in public and private sector banks of Lahore, Pakistan. The structural
equation modeling analysis was employed for hypotheses testing. The result showed that HR
Practices i.e. (job design, information flow, employee development, and employees benefits)
were positively directly related to work happiness. HR practices also had indirect effect on
work hap ...
1-Muhammad Ali Assistant Professor, Institute of Business Administration, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Usman Ghani MPhil Scholar, Department of Management Sciences, Institute of Management Sciences, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Basharat Raza Lecturer, Department of Business Administration,National College of Business Administration and Economics, Lahore,
Employee development, Employee Benefits, Employee Resilience, Human Resource Practices, Information flow
The Impact of Teachers' Personality on Students' Academic Achievement in Pakistan.
Teachers personality plays a significant role in accomplishing students
educational achievement. Teaching and learning have a major part in
creating a friendly and encouraging learning environment for students. In this context, the
current research was conducted to explore the influence of tutors character on pupils
learning and accomplishment. It was a descriptive correlative research approach. The sample
comprised of 1,152 teachers and 2,304 students of 10th grade of public and private secondary
schools who were chosen through a cluster sampling technique. The respondents were taken
from 12 districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Two questionnaires; one for teachers and one for
students were used to collect data. Teachers questionnaires were based on an adapted
personality measure scale ...
1-Shaista Noreen PhD Scholar, Department of Education,The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan. 2-Akhtar Ali Professor,Department of education, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Uzma Munawar Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Government Sadiq Women University Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
Personality, Characteristics, Big Five Model. Student’s Achievement
The Effect of Relational Coordination on Employee Creative Involvement: A Study of Public and Private Hospitals in Peshawar, Pakistan
Relational coordination is an emerging HR-related concept based on the
network of ties between task participants and is expected to produce
favorable efficiency and quality outcome. The relational coordination-employee outcome is
new research dimension in the relational coordination field. The objective of the study was to
test if relational coordination leads to employee related outcomes. In terms of research
methodology, we followed the positivism paradigm, used deductive approach, and
quantitative method of data collection and analysis. Furthermore, we used the survey based
on previously developed measures for data collection. Through stratified random sampling,
data is collected from doctors, nurses, and support staff from five public and five private
sector hospitals. The usa ...
1-Muhammad Tahir PhD Scholar, Department of Management Science, Qurtuba University of Science & Information Technology, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan. 2-Sajid Rahman Assistant Professor, Institute of Business & Management Sciences, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.3-Imran Saeed Lecturer,Institute of Business & Management Sciences,The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.
Training Program for countering the Effects of Terrorism and Emotional Stability of University Students in Punjab (Pakistan)
The current scenario of terrorism in Pakistan made people insecure, scared depressed and aggressive. After the tragic
incidents of 9/11, terrorism has become a major threat to the lives of the people. Pakistan was a severe victim of
terrorism. The present study assessed the need for a training program to counter effects of terrorism on emotional stability of university
students.The population and sample of the study were comprised of Government College University, Faisalabad. The purpose of the
study was to investigate the effects of terrorism among university students. A self-developed questionnaire was designed for students to
examine the existing level of emotional instability through survey. Both Descriptive, as well as inferential Statistical tests, were applied
to draw conclusi ...
1-Muhammad Naeem Ashraf PhD Scholar, Department of Education, GC University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Naeem Mohsin Associate Professor, Department of Education, GC University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Shabbir Ali Assistant Professor,Department of Education,University of Education, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Self-Efficacy Beliefs between the Graduates from the Madrassas and Public Sector Institutes in Punjab
The present research explored the self-efficacy beliefs between the
graduates from the madrassas and public sector institutes. The variable of
the interest was self-efficacy beliefs. The study was quantitative in nature. Simple random
sampling was used as a sampling technique. The population was selected from province of
Punjab. Three divisions (Faisalabad, Multan, and Lahore) were selected randomly from
different institutions. Furthermore; 24 institutions were selected from province on the origin
of area. Two hundred and forty sample graduates were chosen from the selected population.
Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SEQ) was used as instrument in this study. SEQ was used to
evaluate graduates self-efficacy beliefs. Descrprtive and inferential statistics were applied
to draw the resu ...
1-Muhammad Riaz PhD Scholar, Department of Education, GC University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. 2-Muhammad Naeem Mohsin Associate Professor,Department of Education,GC University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Shafqat Rasool Assistant Professor, Department of Education,Government College University, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
Self-Efficacy, Graduates, Madrassas, Public Sector, Institutes.
Effective Management of Secondary School Head Teachers in Punjab: A Comparative Study
Heads are leading figures in educational institutions responsible for the
training of future generations but also have to perform many key functions
to achieve the predetermined objectives. The objective was a comparison of management
effectiveness between direct selectees and promoted secondary school headteachers of
Punjab. A close-ended rating scale consisting of 25 statements was developed on five-point
Likert scale for 464 senior Secondary School Teachers (SSTs) selected through multistage
random sampling. Nine district educational administrators were interviewed using structured
interview schedule. Reliability was assured as 0.83 by test and re-test approach. After analysis
of data, it was concluded that headteachers selected directly by Punjab Public Service
Commission had ...
1-Shafqat Rasool Lecturer,Department of Education, GC University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. 2-Muhammad Arshad SST, Department of Education (School), Govt. Fazilka Islamia Model High School Pakpattan, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Shabbir Ali Assistant Professor,Department of Education,University of Education, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
The Emergent Bioethics of Human Cloning Debate in Global Context
This paper begins with the idea of technology generally and its influence
over the global world in family and reproduction sectors particularly. The
ARTs have taken over the lead in this sector but human cloning is not a phenomenon endorsed
and greeted by everyone around the globe. This paper examines and analyses the arguments
of the proponents and opponents on the subject of human cloning from the moral and ethical
perspectives. Such concerns over the idea of human cloning evolve around all the
stakeholders and do not spare anyone from observation of certain code of conduct proposed
by the moral and ethical values. The proponents argue that it is the need of the hour to
welcome such an innovative technique and rejection of this technique would be totally
unjustified and contrary ...
1-Shazia Kiyani PhD Research scholar, Department of Shariah and Law, International Islamic University Islamabad, Pakistan. 2-Sohaib Ahmed Hashmi Lecturer,Department of Law, The University of Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Human Cloning, Morals and Ethics, Values, Bioethics
An Empirical Study of Work-Family Field: Identifying Psychographic Predictors of WorkFamily Conflict
This study propounds to examine the dynamics of relationship among
emotional intelligence, job satisfaction, and self-efficacy and work-family
conflict in female lawyers. Correlational Cross-sectional research design was implicated in
this research in order to test the hypothesis that emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and job
satisfaction are likely to predict work-family conflict in young female lawyers. The sample
comprised of n= 200 female lawyers, age ranging between 30-50 years, recruited from the
civil and high court of Lahore, Pakistan. SPSS 23.0 was used to execute analyses that revealed
that emotional intelligence was somehow having negative relationship with work-family
conflict yet positively associated with self-efficacy. Findings of linear regression analysis
1-Afsheen Masood Assistant Professor, Institute of Applied Psychology,University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Sulman PhD Scholar, School of Media & Communication Studies,University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Arooj Arshad Lecturer, School of Creative Arts, University of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
British Values and the Deconstruction of Thomas Hardy's Short Story "Netty Sargent's Copyhold"
The present study deals with the analysis of Thomas Hardys short story “Netty Sargents Copyhold”. To have a
deconstructive analysis of the short story, Barrys (2002) three levelsof analysis, i.e., verbal, textual and linguistic,
have been used. It was found that the story has words with contradictory and confusing meaning entrenched in the British values.
Also, the story has a diversion in ideas and grammar. However, no such examples of the third level were found in the story. In short,
the story has words, grammar, and other ideas which give it a loose structure when reading from the perspective of deconstruction,
which lead the researchers to conclude that the work is a fine specimen of the spirit of the Victorian age. ...
1-Irfan Ullah Assistant Professor, Department of English,Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan. 2-Liaqat Iqbal Assistant Professor,Department of English,Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.3-Farooq Shah Lecturer,Department of English,Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
Impact of Motivation on Students’ and Teachers’ Efficiency and School Effectiveness in Pakistan
The purpose of conducting this research was to study the impact of motivation on teachers and students efficiency
and school effectiveness. It was a descriptive study which had a sample of 60 government high schools situated in
urban and rural area of District Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan. Self-administrative questionnaires comprising 30 statements were
used to collect data from 240 randomly selected teachers and students. The results of the analysis recognized that students and teachers
have strong impact on their own efficiency and school effectiveness whereas parental choice is also affected by this. By keeping in mind
the conclusions the research recommended; seminars and awareness campaign on psychological strength and social values may be
conducted, Missing facilities possibly ...
1-Muhammad Attique Head Master,Department of Education,The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan. 2-Shahid Hussain Head Master,Department of Education,The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Akhtar Ali Professor,Department of Education,The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
A Comparative Study of Teachers’ Perspectives about Commercialization of Education at Elementary Level in Punjab
There is a rapid increase in demand for education across the country. Consequently, the trend of educating children
in private sector schools is expanding. This article provides an overview of the teachers of private and public schools
regarding commercialization of education at elementary level. A self-developed questionnaire was followed for data collection. No
significant difference was found in the perceptions of both sectors teachers regarding positive attitude of parents towards private
sector, high socio economic status of private sector students and low and high emphasis of commercialization of education in rural
and urban areas respectively. Public school teachers views for acceptability of fee structure and promotion of quality of education for
commercialization of educatio ...
1-Ghulam Hyder PhD Scholar, Department of Education,The University of Lahore, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Arshad SST (Science),Department of Education (School),Government Fazilka Islamia Model High School Pakpattan, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Iftikhar Ahmad Baig Professor, Department of Education,The University of Lahore, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
The Role of Parents and Teachers in Academic Achievement of Students in Hazara Division, Pakistan
This research was designed for discovering the effect of parental involvement as well as teachers involvement upon
the students academic achievement at the secondary level. The research explored the impact of two characteristics
of parental involvement i.e. parental communication, and their emotional support, and classroom security, and teachers motivation
on students academic achievement. Sample selection was done through stratified random sampling. 1438 students were selected from
10th grade students. Data collection was done through self-developed and validated questionnaires. Multiple regression model, mean
and standard deviation were used for the purpose of data analysis. The results indicate that parental communication has emerged as
the major indicator of involvement of parent ...
Role Conflict, Marital Quality and Career Satisfaction: A Demographic Analysis of Dual Career Couples in Peshawar, Pakistan
This study is carried out to know the level of role conflict, marital quality and career satisfaction of dual career
couples across the selected demographics in Peshawar city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa of Pakistan. Demographic
features including gender, age, parenthood, family type and form of marriage were selected as independent variables while role
conflict, marital quality and career satisfaction were selected as dependent variables. Data was collected through three point Likert
scale from the purposively selected 388 respondents in six universities and three hospitals in Peshawar city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Province of Pakistan. The data was analysed through T-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). It was found that gender, age,
parenthood, family type and marital form were significan ...
1-Khalil ur Rahman Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, University Hazara University Mansehra, KP, Pakistan. 2-Tariq Anwar Khan Lecturer,Department of Political Science,Hazara University Mansehra, KP, Pakistan.3-Kiramat Ullah Lecturer, Department of Political Science,Hazara University Mansehra, KP, Pakistan.
Develop a Strategy of Pre Service Teachers Training Program for Early Childhood Education in Azad Jammu and Kashmir
The aim of this study was to develop a strategy of pre service teachers training program for early childhood
education. The objective of the study was to develop a strategy of pre service teachers training program for early
childhood education. The study is descriptive in nature which would assess need to the pre service teacher training program for ECE
and development of strategies for future in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK). The researchers decided to take sample from each
division. 175 primary teachers and 35 head teachers from each division were chosen. Thus teachers sample consisted of total 510
teachers and 105 head teachers from three divisions. In this study multistage sampling technique was used. All scores on the individual
data sheets and questionnaire of all categories wer ...
1-Sattar Muhammad Student,Department of Education, Mohi-Ud-Din Islamic University Nerian Sharif AJK, Pakistan. 2-Nazir Haider Shah Professor,Department of Education,Mohi-Ud-Din Islamic University Nerian Sharif AJK, Pakisstan.3-Muhammad Munir Kayani Professor, Department of Education, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Model, Pre Service Teachers Training, Early Childhood Education
Energy Proficient Strategies and Future Challenges in 5G Networks in Pakistan
To meet the extraordinary subscribers’ requests in near future, 5G wireless cellular networks are developing. With
the arrival of 5th generation (5G), millions of new Base Stations (BS) and billions of associated gadgets will also
be increased which require the extra power. More power utilization will result in an ascent in the CO2 discharge into the atmosphere,
which may cause various human diseases. To meet the requests of an expanded limit, an enhanced data rate, and a superior nature
of the service of the up-coming generation systems, there is a dire need to embrace energy proficient models, which consume less power.
This manuscript gives an overview of energy proficient strategies and future challenges in 5G networks, which will be helpful for
research scholars and organizatio ...
1-Dost Muhammad Khan Assistant Professor,Department of Computer Sciences and I.T, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan2-Tariq Aziz Rao Visiting Lecturer,Department of Computer Sciences and I.T,The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Najia Sehr Lecturer, Department of Computer Sciences and I.T, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
Energy Efficiency, Power Optimization, Green Communication, Wireless Communication
Implementation of 21st Century Skills in Higher Education of Pakistan
The emergence of the global economy has changed the demands of citizenship and employment in the new
millennium. The world is shifting from an industrial economy to knowledge based economy. Keeping in view these
challenges, 21st century society and work sphere require individuals equipped with 21st century skills. Therefore the present study
was designed to examine the implementation of 21st century skills in universities of Pakistan. The aim of the study was to examine
the existing programs and practices at the universities and their relation with 21st century skills. Learning and innovation skills,
also called 4Cs skills, were taken as 21st century skills in the present study. These skills consist of (i) critical thinking and problem
solving, (ii) communication, (iii) collaboration ...
1-Hayat Khan PhD Scholar, Department of Education,International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-N.B. Jumani Professor, Department of Education, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Nawab Gul Senior English Teacher,Government Higher Secondary School,Badar Banda Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
Global Economy, Knowledge based Economy, 21st Century Skills and Implementation
Impact of Transformational Leadership on Teacher Retention at Elementary School Level in Punjab: Teachers’ Perspectives
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of transformational leadership on teacher retention at
elementary school level (ESL) of Southern Punjab. The elementary school teachers (ELT) of Southern Punjab formed
population. For the sample, 240 schools and 960 teachers were selected randomly for the study. The study has measured
transformational leadership through factors i.e. job characteristics, school characteristics and personal attributes. When the
respondents were asked for their views about teacher retention then there was no significant dissimilarity with respect to gender rather
both groups had similar views; whereas significant difference was found between private and public teacher. ...
1-Toheed Qamar PhD Scholar, Department of Education,The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan. 2-Muhammad Javed Assistant Professor,Department of Education, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Zafar Hussain PhD Scholar,Department of Education,The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
Retention, transformational leadership, personal attributes
The Expanding Role of Shanghai Cooperation Organization in the Context of Inter-Regional Integration between Central Asia and South Asia: Prospects and Challenges
This paper analyzes the role of Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) as an effective instrument for regional
security, cooperation and integration between Central and South Asia. It has the capacity to counter both
traditional and non-traditional security threats. The presence of both Central Asian and South Asian states as members actually
complement each other. As both face similar security issue i.e. terrorism. Energy Security of both regions is the biggest complementary
factor and have bright prospects of cooperation under SCO. Moreover, the presence of China and Russia, two major regional powers
having aspiration for regional integration makes it an attractive option for carrying out the regional stability and deeper integration.
The role of SCO seems to be expanding in the w ...
Current Trends and Issues in Quality Assurance Practices: Higher Education Pakistan
The purpose of this research endeavour is to explore the current trends of quality assurance practices in the public
and private universities of Pakistan. This study is based on the primary data from a doctoral thesis titled a
comparative study of the quality assurance (QA) practices in public and private universities and online data of these universities in
2019 to extract improvement in quality assurance practices. Last ten years QA practices have been reviewed thematically and new
trends have been variegated through empirical analysis from online data. Higher Education Commission Pakistan has provided a
detailed manual for quality assurance and its enhancement to the universities quality assurance cells (QECS). The characteristics of
these cells have been examined to identify the ...
1-Shafqat Rasool Lecturer,Department of Education, GC University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Arshad SST (Science), Department of Education (School),Govt. Fazilka Islamia Model High School, Pakpattan, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Shabbir Ali Assistant Professor, Department of Education,University of Education, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Quality Assurance Practices, Public and Private Universities, Online Data, Pakistan.
Journeys from Crimes to Crowns: Literary Representation of Shakespearian Tragedies
Thinking is ideas banking and everyone wants the encashment of his/her thinking. Man desires to get godly powers
through the encashment of his ideas. Some people get power through inheritance while others earn through hard
work. The scholars are of the view that religion and fortune favor some men in committing crimes to reach the crowns, while others
lose their lives. Human history is full of such incidents where sinners become saints through power. Religious and cultural accounts
start preaching and teaching of their nobility. Shakespearean tragedies, in this regard, are highly important where different dramatic
characters and historical figures reached to crowns through committing crimes and these characters can be seen in the present age.
This research paper is an investigation t ...
1-Rasib Mahmood Associate Professor, Department of English, University of Lahore, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Sanna Asghar Student, Department of English, Beaconhouse National University Lahore, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. 3-Sadia Safdar Student, Department of English,Minhaj University Lahore, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Machiavellianism and Bullying Behavior: Conditional Effects of Trait Activating Job Roles and Mediating Mechanism of Impression Management: A Region Based Study
This research identifies the job-based role ambiguity which positively triggers the self-impressions of
Machiavellianism personality. Machiavellian personality engaged in bullying behaviors which can be reduced
by the soft impression management tactics. A field sample of 420 employees working in telecommunication sector were analyzed.
Time lag research design was used to investigate the linear effects of the proposed constructs. The hypotheses were tested by using
the moderated-mediation analysis. The result shows that role ambiguous job demands trigger the functional attributes of
Machiavellian personality for predicting positive self-impression. The impact of Machiavellian personality on bullying behavior
through moderated-mediation of role ambiguity and impression management was s ...
1-Hafsah Zahur PhD Scholar, Department of Management Sciences,International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan. 2-Tasneem Fatima Assistant Professor,Department of Management Sciences,International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Hina Shahab Assistant Professor,Department of Management Sciences,National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Machiavellianism, Role Ambiguity, Impression Management and Bullying Behavior.
Sufism and the Socio-Legal Services of Hazrat Moinuddin Hasan Sanjari of Ajmer Urf "Khwaja Gareeb Nawaz"
The Sufi saints, Ulemas and Mashaikhs always had an important place in the history of mankind. These Sufi
saints belong to different tariqas but their basic belief has been same and that is “oneness of Allah”. A tariqa
is a school of thought or a concept for the mystical teaching and spiritual practices with the intention of seeking the ultimate
truth. The history of Moinuddin Chishti, the Sufi saint of Ajmer is much mired in mythology. Therefore, it is often infuriating to
shift fact from friction. Loveable and the legends declare Moinuddin Chishti a great saint, many are curious to know why he is
considered to be so. This paper explores why Moinuddin Chisti is considered greater above all in the Chishti tariqa. In addition
to this, this paper also explores the socio-legal servi ...
1-Samza Fatima Assistant Professor, Department of Law, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan. 2-Muhammad Bilal Assistant Professor, Department of Law,Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Aamir Abbas Assistant Professor, Department of Law,G. C. University, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
A Self-efficacious TESOL Professional in the Arabian Gulf: Evidence from the Literature
This article reflects on the notion of self-effectiveness as a substantial aspect of language teachers in ESL/EFL
contexts. It introduces and defines the construct of teacher self-effectiveness, which can be derived from four
different sources; a) enactive experience, b) vicarious experiences, c) social persuasion, and d) physiological states. The present
study takes into consideration various skills, knowledge, and exposure that ESL/EFL teachers need in order to apply communicative
language teaching (CLT) techniques and improve learners linguistic competence. The review of literature brings into light a broad
range of factors that might influence self-effectiveness beliefs of the teachers in a school context, and consequently their teaching
outcomes. These factors include supportive ...
1-Arshad Ali Khan Assistant Professor,Department of Linguistics and Communication,University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Hussain Ahmad Lecturer,English Language Institute,King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.3-Sayyed Rashid Ali Shah Assistant Professor,Faculty of Language and Translation,King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
Lower Extremity Kinematics of the Successful and Unsuccessful Cricket Pull Shots of the Malaysian National Cricket Batsmen
This research is about the kinematics analysis of the lower extremity of the cricket batsmen at the attempt of
successful and unsuccessful pull shots. Data were recorded from (n = 18) Malaysian cricket batsmen by using
two video cameras. Repeated measures ANOVA was applied for statistical analysis. Results showed the back lift, angular movements
of the knees, hips joints, velocities of the left knee, hip and bat were significantly faster at successful pull shot than unsuccessful
shots. It was concluded the higher angular position of knees and hips joints increase the vertical position of batsmen to execute a
successful pull shot. The cricket coaches are required to focus on the improvement of high backlift, a higher extension of knees and
hips, faster movement left leg and bat the ti ...
1-Muhammad Zia Ul Haq Lecturer,Physical Education and Sport Science,The Islamica University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan. 2-Muhammad Badar Habib Lecturer, Physical Education and Sport Science,The Islamica University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Tahir Nazeer Assistant Professor, Department of Sport Science & Physical Education,The University of Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Cricket Batting, Batsman, Short Pitch Ball, Bat Swing, Pull Shot
Identification of the Reasons of Childrens Anxiety and Submissive Attitude: A Comparative Study of Public and Private Schools
The main purpose of this research was to analyse the children anxiety in both public and private schools. The
main objectives of the study were (a) to identify the factor that involve to increase fear among children; (b) to
investigate the positive and negative impact of anxiety on students academic performance; (c) to analyse the children learning state
of mind during fear and submissive attitude. This descriptive research involved the data collection from ninety (90) teachers, three
hundred and seventy five (375) students and forty (40) parents. They were selected by convenience sampling technique. It is found
that when children are in fearful environment they feel panic attack and they participate less in class when they are in state of fear
while most of the children think that s ...
1-Muhammad Shakir Lecturer, Educational Training, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Musarrat Jahan PhD Scholar, Education Department, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Shaista Noreen Visiting Scholar, Education Department,The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
A Feminist Stylistic Analysis of Characterisation in Doris Lessings A Woman on a Roof
In her book Feminist Stylistics, Sara Mills (1995) argues that characters in texts are not simulacra of humans.
They are merely words which represent men and women in accordance with stereotypes that are found in society.
This study takes up D. Lessings short story A Woman on a Roof (1963/1990) and looks at the characterisation in it by using
Mills model (1995) at the level of discourse. The aim of the study is to find out whether the representation of male and female
characters in this story is gendered or not. The results of the study show that female characters are represented negatively while the
male characters are represented positively. On the basis of these findings, it is recommended that these representational practices
need to change in order to bring about a change in the ...
1-Abdul Qayyum PhD Scholar,Department of English,University of Peshawar, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan. 2-Mujib Rahman Professor, Department of English, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.3-Henna Gul Nisar Lecturer, IBMS,The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.
Propaganda Revisited: Understanding Propaganda in the Contemporary Communication Oriented World
Propaganda had always remained a very important tool to influence others. Many researchers had worked and
synthesized the concept of propaganda. But there was still a lot to be done as the contemporary propaganda
industries had given this phenomenon a very subtle structure. This particular research study aimed to analyze the propaganda
definitions set forth by various propaganda researchers to develop a comprehensive definition of the concept. For this purpose
definitions provided by thirty different propaganda scholars had been analyzed to identify various elements of propaganda. Fourteen
most frequently occurring elements were identified. On the basis of these elements, a comprehensive definition of propaganda was
constructed to enhance the propaganda literature of Pakistan, which ...
1-Samia Manzoor Assistant Professor,Department of Communication Studies,Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Aasima Safdar Assistant Professor,Department of Communication Studies,Department Communication Studies,3-Beenish Zaheen Lecturer,Department of Mass Communication, The Women University, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.
Propaganda, Definitions, Propaganda Analysis, Propaganda Literature, Propaganda Researchers, Elements of Propaganda
Impact of Leadership Styles Upon Professional Commitment
The current study aimed to assess the effect of different leadership styles (Transformational, Transactional and
Laissez-faire styles) upon the professional commitment. The study population encompassed the lecturers in Physical
Education of all the public colleges in the province Punjab, Pakistan. Due to accessible population, no sampling techniques were
preferred in this research study. The total number of lecturers (PE) was 576, in which 210 were male and 366 were female. Selfdeveloped scales were designed and used for data collection. The total 76% return rate of responses was recorded. Inferential and
descriptive statistics were used to examine the collected information. On the basis of the findings, it was concluded that there is a
positive effect of transactional style of head o ...
1-Afshan Jabeen PhD Scholar, SS&PE,Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, KP, Pakistan.2-Salahuddin Khan Professor,SS&PE,Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan, KP, Pakistan.3-Syed Zia-u Islam Lecturer,SS&PE,Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan, KP, Pakistan.
The Effectiveness of PowerPoint Mediated Early Elementary Science Modules for Independent Learning
PowerPoint is one of the programs that has made classrooms more colorful and attractive with its multimedia
incorporation. The present research has examined the effectiveness of early elementary science modules prepared
with attributes of PowerPoint show for students independent and autonomous learning. The modules were prepared for the subject
of sixth-grade science, employing programmed learning principles. This experimental study has compared two groups of sixth grade;
each group having N=30, at public and private schools parallelly, with a pretest, posttest control group design by introducing
PowerPoint mediated modules for four weeks for one hour daily. The pre and post-test achievements were compared through the ttest. Both study groups at public and private sector schools incre ...
1-Habiba Azhar PhD Scholar,Department of Research & Evaluation,Institute of Education, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Afifa Khanam Assistant Professor,Department of Research & Evaluation,Institute of Education, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Uzma Quraishi Professor, Women University, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.
South Asian Print Media and Children Rights Discourse: A Critical Analysis of Pakistan – India Press
Children rights are highlighted by various authors, columnist and media persons from time to time. The purpose
of this study is to identify the imperative issues of children in South Asia especially Pakistan and India. This research
article aims to provide information to the advisers and policy makers to shift particular difficulties of children rights to the forefront
of public conscience. For this purpose, two dailies, The Nation from Pakistan and The Hindu from India were selected to find out
the value given to children rights. The study shows that the coverage of children rights of education, health, safety and
development rights were hardly covered in Pakistan and India print media and it is rarely prominent to identify the important issues
related to children rights. This surve ...
1-Taj Mengal PhD Scholar, Department of Media Studies, Islamia University, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Tahir Mahmood Assistant Professor, Department of Communication Studies, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Rukhsana Faiz Visiting Lecturer, Government College Civil Lines, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.
outh Asia, Children, Rights, Newspaper, India, Pakistan, Perception
Exploring Gender Differences in Moral Intelligence and its Effects on the Learning Outcomes of Second Year College Students
The current study was undertaken with the primary objectives of exploring differences in moral intelligence due to
gender and determining moral intelligences effect on the learning performance of second-year students. The
population of the study consisted of all second year college students of Skardu, Pakistan. However, data were collected from 445
students within the entire population by using the simple random sampling technique. Female students were found more intelligent
than male ones in this study. The results depict that moral intelligence significantly affects the academic performance of students.
So, it is suggested that subjects and contents related to moral intelligence may be included in the syllabus of second-year college
students, as far as students practical involvemen ...
1-Ali Hussain Arif PhD Scholar,Department of Education, National University of Modern Languages Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Marium Din Assistant Professor,Department of Education, National University of Modern Languages Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Zafar Saleem Assistant Professor, Department of Teacher Education, Qurtuba University of Science & information Technology Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.
Exploring, Gender Differences, Moral Intelligence and Academic Performance
Exploring Learners’ Attitudes Towards Demotivating Factors in Vocabulary Learning
The research study aimed to explore ESL learners’ attitudes towards demotivating factors in vocabulary learning.
In order to explore what factors are affecting ESL learners’ vocabulary learning and to identify the difference
between male and female learners’ attitude towards demotivating factors in the process of vocabulary learning. A total of 300 male
and female learners participated in this study. Data was collected through a questionnaire and written remarks of participants. The
obtained data was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. On the bases of findings, different factors were reported as
demotivating in vocabulary learning by male and female learners. The difference between male and female respondents’ attitudes
towards various demotivating factors related ...
1-Noveen Javed Assistant Professor,Department of English, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Mamuna Ghani Professor, Department of English, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
Demotivation, Vocabulary learning, Attitude, Gender, English as a Second language (ESL)
Analyzing Writing Needs of MBA Students: A Case Study of IIUI
This research aims to analyze written skills of students enrolled in Business Communication course by conducting a
Needs Analysis survey. While focusing on the necessities, lacks and wants of learners, the current language
proficiency of students was matched with the target level needed in business organizations. For this purpose, a needs analysis based
on the target situation needs analysis model provided by Hutchinson and Waters (1987) was conducted. Two questionnaires were
designed to collect data from learners and prospective business employers. Moreover, faculty members were interviewed to get an
enriched data. A quantitative data was qualitatively analyzed to reveal that needs analysis is a neglected aspect of curriculum
development in Pakistan and that the needs of students ar ...
1-Lubna Umar Lecturer, Department of English Language and Applied Linguistics,Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Umaima Kamran Assistant Professor,Department of English,Quaid-I-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Saira Maqbool Assistant Professor, Department of English Language and Applied Linguistics,Allama Iqbal Open Universit,y Islamabad, Pakistan.
Needs Analysis, Target Needs, Business Communication, Writing Skills
Mediating Role of Social Support Between Job Stress and Job Performance of Lecturers (Physical Education)
The research study aimed to investigate the role of social support as a mediator between job stress and job
performance of lecturer physical education. All male and female 97 and 73 respectively were the target population
of the study. For obtaining the desiredresult the researcher used descriptive research with cross-sectional research design. The research
study was carried out through three different types of self-administered close-ended questionnaires. To test the hypothesis inferential
statistical test was applied to draw the finding and conclusion and the process v3.3 by Andrew F. Hayes was used for mediation to
obtain the desire result. The research study indicated that social support played a partial mediating role between job stressors and
job performance of LPEs, as the coe ...
1-Muhammad Asghar khan Instructor Physical Education,Sports Sciences and Physical Education,Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, KP, Pakistan.2-Akhter Nawaz Gunjera Associate Professor,Department of Sports & Physical Education, University of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Syed Zia Ul Islam Lecturer, Sports Sciences and Physical Education,Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, KP, Pakistan.
Job Stress, Job Performance, Social Support and Lecturer Physical Education
Attitudes about Interfaith Harmony: A Case Study of Muslims and Hindus social Relationship in District Swat
The position of the minority has been discussed in the context of contemporary developments. The interfaith harmony
between majority and minority is much significant in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The study focused to
assassinate the interfaith harmony between Muslims and Hindus in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The main aim of the study
is to investigate that either there exists harmony between both faith holders or not. Stratified random sampling was utilized as a
strategy for information assortment. The sample size of 210 respondents was determined as per criteria design by Sekaran. The study
carried out a univariate analysis to determine the interfaith harmony in frequency and percentage. The study helps to produce an
environment conducive to the arrangement of equivalent ...
1-Ihsan Ullah Khan Assistant Professor,Department of Sociology, FATA University, Dara Kohat, KP, Pakistan.2-Azizullah Jan Senior Certified Teacher,Department of Sociology,University of Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.3-Khalil Ur Rahman Assistant Professor,Department of Sociology,Hazara University Mansehra, KP, Pakistan.
Nice Nexus, Social Relationship, Interfaith Harmony, Interfaith Dialogue and Mutual Regards
Children Television Viewing Patterns and Parental Media Literacy in Pakistan
This study examines the television viewing routines of children in Pakistan. Familial, as well as individual,
television viewing patterns were explored. Explanations for the childrens content choice and parental rationales
behind allowing free content consumption are listed. Parental media literacy, especially concerning the content rating system, was
examined. 2000 Pakistani parents, of varying educational backgrounds, contributed to the survey. Accordingly: 16% of parents
allow their children unsupervised television viewing. 86% of children watch for 1 to 3 hours, and 14% watch for 3 to 5 plus hours
daily. Preferred childrens programs, at 96% (n= 1915/2000), in Pakistan, are cartoons and animated movies 77%
(n=1548/2000). Children are allowed unadulterated viewing for entertainment ...
1-Attia Zulfiqar Student,Institute of Communication studies,University of Punjab, Pakistan.2-Noshina Saleem Professor, Institute of Communication studies, University of Punjab, Pakistan.3-Faiza Latif Assistant professor,Department of mass communications,Lahore College for Women University Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Media Literacy; Rating System; Family Television Viewing Patterns
Effects of Communicative Teaching on Lab Report Writing Skills at Secondary Level Schools in Islamabad (Pakistan)
The key objective of the research was to find the effect of communicative language teaching (CLT) on report writing
skills among 9th graders. Relevant literature revealed that report writing skills can be enhanced with the help of
communicative teaching. A quasi-experimentaldesign was used. To experiment, two classes from one school were selected conveniently.
for gathering data to achieve the intended objective. Communicative lessons were intervention material. Results showed that
communicative teaching had a significant effect on 9th graders skills of a laboratory report in terms of writing. The outcome of
research tells that CLT is valuable for educationists. Further, it is recommended for the teaching of writing any literary genre. ...
1-Aftab Ahmad Lecturer,Department of Science Education,Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Abdul Majeed Khan Assistant Professor, Department of Education,University of Mianwali, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Samiullah Assistant Professor,ECE&ETE,Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad, Pakistan.
Grammar Translation Method (GTM), English Language Teaching (ELT), Communicative Language Teaching, Report Writing.
Identification of Factors Undermining the TeachingLearning Process in the Subject of Physics at Secondary Level in Pakistan
The teaching of Physics involves theoretical as well as practical skills development of students at the secondary
school level. The main aim of the study was to identify the factors that undermine the teaching-learning process
in the subject of physics. All secondary schools science teachers were considered as the population of the study. Two hundred (200)
science teachers (100 each male and female) were selected as the sample of the study through stratified random sampling techniques.
Data was collected through a self-developed questionnaire of reliability coefficient 0.84 and were analyzed using statistical tools.
The unavailability of physics: teacher, laboratory, classrooms, related books were concluded undermining factors. Lake of physics
teachers and unfavorable working environ ...
1-Kifayat Khan Assistant Professor,Department of Education,University of Haripur, Haripur, KP, Pakistan.2-Munir Khan Assistant Professor, Department of Education,University of Malakand, Malakand, KP, Pakistan. 3-Abdur Rashid Lecturer,Department of Education,Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Sheringal Dir Upper, KP, Pakistan.
Teaching Physics, Undermining Factors, Teaching-Learning Process, Laboratory, Implement Etc.
Determination of Education and Training, Discipline, Leadership Style on Loyalty Through work Satisfaction of Pamong Praja Police Units Uniters in Bintan Regency
The human resources strongly influence the success of an organization in achieving its goals at the management level (elements of the leader/officials), at the staff/employee level; it is one of the determining factors in the success of an organization. Proper discipline will have an impact on high loyalty. It is highly desirable to conduct research for finding relation between human resources and achievement of an organization. Researchers used data processing using SEM with AMOS version 24 software; the sample of respondents numbered 138. The value of square multiple correlation training, discipline, leadership style, and job satisfaction showed 2.90%. Thus, it can be stated that changes in loyalty are determined by the contribution of training,discipline, leadership style, and job satis ...
Listening to the Whispers: Female Faculty and Work Environment in Universities of Southern Punjab, Pakistan
This research explored the experiences of female university teachers regarding the culture of work environment in
public sector universities of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Findings are drawn through the questionnaire including
six main dimensions of the workplace. The respondents ranked the factors under each dimension. The analyses of calculated ranks
for factors lead to identify two main categories: tangible and intangible or elusive factors. The higher ranks for the tangible factors
are indicators of the priorities of female university teachers while the lower ranks of the intangible factors exhibit the discomfort of
female teachers. The female university teachers face conservative gender norms, male dominance, obstacles to be self-reliant and
limited opportunities for active parti ...
1-Lubna Shoukat Assistant Professors, Department of Educational Training, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Tahira Altaf Esabzai Deputy DEO (W) Tehsil Khanpur, District Rahim Yar Khan, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Waheed Assistant Professors, Department of Educational Training, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
Work Environment, Sex-Role Stereotypes, Awareness of Rights, Collaboration and Support, and Capacity Building.
The Principle of non- Refoulement and its Role in the Protection of Refugees
The protection available to refugees under the principle of non-refoulement is a well-established rule of the
customary international law; which means that they can’t be shiftedagainst their well to their country where their
life is at risk. A person who avails the protection of the principle of non-refoulement and other protections guaranteed under the
international refugee instruments is considered a refugee. This principle is well established both under the Refugee Convention 1951 and
Convention against Torture (CAT) 1984. This research revolves around the question that if a country is not a signatory to any refugee
related instrument at international level nor has any domestic law related to refugees, sothen what precludes such a nation from expelling
a person or group of perso ...
1-Muhammad Zubair Associate Professor, Department of Law, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Aqeel Khan Assistant Professor, Department of Law, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.3-Muzamil Shah Superintendent, Department of Law, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
Forced return, Nationality, Persecution, Political opinion, and Race.
Continuous Professional Development: A Source of Appropriate Learning Activities for Students
The purpose of this research study was to analyze the impact of professional development courses on teaching practices of the teachers A quantitative approach was adopted to solve the query, a questionnaire having close-ended questions was developed to collect data. The population of the study was teachers' trainers and heads of the institutions. The purpose of including trainers was to understand what types of courses offered by the teachers training institutes while inclusion heads to know about the changes found in the personalities of the teachers after attending a course. The analysis of collected data reveals that training institutes are offering general courses instead of subject-oriented courses, and resultantly teachers are unable to have appropriate subject related activities dur ...
1-Muhammad Ali Shaikh Vice Chancellor, Media Studies and Communication Studies, Sindh Madressatul Islam University, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.2-Stephen John Associate Professor, Department of Education, Sindh Madressatul Islam University, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. 3-Kamal Haider Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Continuous Professional Development; and Appropriate Learning Activities
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Internal Audit in the Power Sector of Pakistan
This study is an attempt to explore those factors which influence the effectiveness of the internal audit in the power sector of Pakistan. The results of the study were obtained on the basis of data collected from internal audit staff members (103) and management (103) of the four large companies of the power sector. The relationship of three factors, i.e., competencies of auditor, management support and relation between the audit committee and internal audit, with the effectiveness of internal audit is studied. It is found that increased competencies of management support and internal auditor have a positive influence on the effectiveness of internal audit in the form of an increase in the implementation of internal audit recommendations proposed by the internal audit. ...
1-Awais Tahir MBA Student, Institute of Management Sciences, Hayatabad, Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan. 2-Wisal Ahmad Assistant Professor, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, KPK, Pakistan. 3-Muhammad Mudassar Anwar Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, University of Kotli Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.
Over Population Shaped Escalation Settlement Acreage Region in Thar Desert, Pakistan
Overpopulation led to the deterioration condition for natural and cultural apprehension that is an alarm to land
morphology. Thar desert headed the most populous region in the world in the distribution of the population of 44
people per square kilometres. These dense disseminations upsurge the settlement. The anthropogenic responses were analyzed in SPSS,
and it results in a huge land degradation transpired. The GIS investigated a village that is spreading 36 square kilometres during
67 last years. It is directed the alarming situation in future. The study suggested overpopulation creates problems for land, human,
the environment and wildlife through different characteristics. In the imminent of time, it caused the geomorphic shifting. ...
1-Sujo Meghwar Assistant Professors, Department of Geography, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Qasim Nizamani Assistant Professor, Department of Media & Communication Studies, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan.3-Farheen Qasim Nizamani Department of Media & Communication Studies, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan.
Ethno-Nationality and Violence in Sindh: A Case Study of MQM
Regionalism has oftenly expressed itself in terms which are opposed to national unity and integrity and challenged the legitimacy of the state while the rulers see it as a threat to development, progress and unity that is the why a regional issue of socio-political representation of Muhajirs has been projected in this paper. As in other states of South Asian region, factors of language and geography contributed a lot in ethnic identification in Pakistan as well which gave birth to various conflicts among different identities in different times and making the process of national integration vulnerable. Two Nation Theory and became successful in the existence of Pakistan but usually culture and language do not support only the development of a single ethno-nationalism aspirations in new rep ...
1-Sanaullah Demonstrator, Department of Political Science, AWKUM, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.2-Fakhr ul Munir Demonstrator, Department of Political Science, AWKUM, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.3-Hina Malik Demonstrator, Department of Political Science, AWKUM, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
Investigating ESL Learners' Motivation through ARCS Motivational Design Model
This research aimed to determine
whether there exists a relationship
between the four elements of Keller's ARCS motivation
framework and undergraduate students' motivation to
learn English as a second language. ARCS' is the
acronym for Attention, Relevance, Confidence and
Satisfaction. This study employed a quantitative
approach and used a survey questionnaire for
collecting data from 300 students enrolled in the
undergraduate programs in four universities (two
public sectors and two private sectors). The
questionnaire was adapted from Keller (1987),
Loorbach et al. (2015), Instructional Materials
Motivation Survey (IMMS) and Wimolmas, (2013).
The items were rated on a 5-point Likert Scale. SPSS
software (v.23) was used to analyze the data.
Demographic/background data was a ...
1-Fareeha Javed Head of TESOL Department, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Najam Us Saher MS Scholar, Department of TESOL, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Sana Baig Lecturer, Department of TESOL, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Motivation, ARCS Model, English as Second Language Students, Undergraduate Students, Pakistan
Improving English Language Proficiency of Graduate Students by Online Learning Apps available on Smartphone
The field of digital literacy is developing rapidly; consequently, the interest of researchers has also shifted now. The
current research study was to explore the role of online learning Apps available on smartphones in improving
graduate students' English language proficiency. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in this study. Data were
collected through a questionnaire that had close-ended and open-ended questions. Questionnaires were distributed among 480
graduate-level students studying in 6 universities of Punjab, Pakistan. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social
Sciences (SPSS 22.0) to find out results in the form of Percentage, Mean Score, Standard Deviation by applying the Independent
Sample T-Test. The results of the study demonstrated ...
1-Shahida Naz PhD Scholar, Department of English, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Mamuna Ghani Professor, Department of English, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Shahid Nawaz Assistant Professor, Department of English, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.