The Pakhtun culture had been flourishing between 484 - 425 BC, in the era of Herodotus and Alexander the Great. Herodotus, the Greek historian, for the first time, used the word Pactyans, for people who were living in parts of Persian Satrapy, Arachosia between 1000 - 1 BC. The hymns' collection from an ancient Indian Sanskrit Ved used the word Pakthas for a tribe, who were inhabitants of eastern parts of Afghanistan. Presently, the terms Afghan and Pakhtun were synonyms till the Durand Line divided Afghanistan and Pakhtuns living in Pakistan. For these people the code of conduct remained Pakhtunwali; it is the pre-Islamic way of life and honour code based upon peace and tranquillity. It presents an ethnic self-portrait which defines the Pakhtuns as an ethnic group having not only a distinct culture, history and language but also a behaviour.
Every newspaper publishes an editorial every day to state their official opinion on the most important of issues. Among public and official policymakers, editorials are taken seriously. This study undertook Pakistan’s two leading newspapers’ editorials – Dawn and The Nation - on the peace talks between the Pakistan government and the Tehreek-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP). The editorials published between January 2014 and July 2014 on the dialogues were studied. Using agenda-setting approach, this study found that Dawn published 67 and The Nation 61 editorials discussing stakeholders’ stance on the dialogue, dialogues bodies, and disruption of dialogues to terrorism and TTP terms. The study measured the editorials to answer research questions.
Keywords : TTP, Peace Dialogues, Editorials
Authored by : (1) Hassan Shehzad
Lecturer, Media and Communication Studies, Islamic International University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
(2) Ahsan Raza
Senior journalists, s, Dawn Newspaper, Pakistan.
Pakistan has been following the prison system of the British Empire. The Pakistani prison system has gone through many changes. Efforts have been made to bring the prison system in Pakistan in conformity with the modern prison system. The restoration of democracy in Pakistan has paved the way for further reforms in the prison system. Many suggestions have been forwarded to the authorities and have been requested for the modification of the inside condition of Pakistani jails. The data for this paper have been collected from Human Rights Organization/ Council of Pakistan, Islamic Ideological Council and jail training institute Lahore. The research under focus is an attempt to explore prison reforms in Pakistan in historical perspective and put forward suggestions to in tune the prison system in Pakistan with International standard.
Keywords : Prison, Reforms, History, Pakistan
Authored by : (1) Zahid Anwar
Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.
(2) S. Zubair Shah
Ph.D. Scholar,Department of Political Science,University of Peshawar, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.
Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA) of Pakistan is one of the most neglected regions in the world as far as development is concerned. It has been the hub of all sorts of illegal activities including militancy and export of terrorism. Thus, it became inevitable for the government of Pakistan to act against militants through military operations. Over the years, hundreds of thousands of people have been displaced from the tribal areas of the country due to conflicts. Moreover, military operation Zarb-e-Azb has been launched in North Waziristan Agency in June 2014. Apart from its success, the operation displaced around 0.5 million people. This paper evaluates how the influx of these IDPs in the country is affecting the socio-economic situation. Secondly, attention has be paid to gauge the impact of such a huge number of displaced population on the law and order and security situation in the host areas.
Pakistan is a state like other states of the world. When it came out from the British net the initial stages were very tough for it. It was considered that it will rejoin India. But the administration of that time took sincere initiatives to manage the affairs gradually. Cold war started at that time between the Communist and Capitalist blocks. Newly established states joined one of them. Pakistan was also one of them. Its foreign policy principles, rules and regulations are highlighted in this paper. All these steps are discussed below gradually with the help of primary and secondary sources. It is concluded that Pakistan had no choice to join the capitalist block because of its financial position that forced it to take such decisions as compared to India. But security and sovereignty were never compromised in every era and at every stage.
Keywords : Alliances, Conflicts, War, Strategy
Authored by : (1) Muhammad Muzaffar
Ph. D ScholarDepartment of Political Science,International Islamic University Islamabad.
(2) Zahid Yaseen
Lecturer,Department of Political Science,Govt. Post Graduate College, Gujranwala, Punjab, Pakistan.
(3) Uroosa Ishfaq
Junior Research Fellow,Humanity Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan.
With the idea of ‘change’ in exiting social system of Pakistan mainly by eradicating corruption, Pakistani Tehrik-e-Insaf emerged in 1996, under the leadership of renowned cricket player Imran Khan. He pledged to promote justice and the establishment of a welfare state. However, the party could hardly attain electoral success until 2012 when it reached on national political peaks. Majority of the Pakistani youth from urban areas follow the party agenda with a new zenith. Unlike other political parties, PTI pledged to challenge the existing transmissible-monarchy and decided to holds the intra party election. By using different primary and secondary sources, this article tries to focus on PTI’s intra party elections in order to denounce the existing socio-political culture of Pakistan, yet it could hardly achieve the said goals in the presence of “old-guard” in the front lines of party leadership.
Keywords : PTI, Political culture, Democracy, Intra party Elections
Authored by : (1) Muhammad Rizwan
Assistant Professor, Department of Pakistan Studies, Abbottabad University of Science and Technology, Havelian, KP, Pakistan.
(2) Manzoor Ahmad
Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science,Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
(3) Muhammad Bilal
Assistant Registrar, Women University, Swabi, KP, Pakistan.
Teachers professional development is central to meet the ever-growing challenges at the elementary school level. In this article we describe the development and use of Teachers Development Scale at the elementary school level in Pakistan. An exploratory factor analysis (n=274) showed two basic dimensions of teachers professional development: community development, and individual development. Community-based developments included collaborative projects, participation in conferences, and system of educators for proficient advancement. On the other hand, individual developments related to improvement in course work, coaching, observation visits to other schools and qualification degree programs. The implication of the study identifies constraints and suggestions for educators, educationists and instructor mentors.
Keywords : Professional Development, Language Teachers, Elementary Education
Authored by : (1) Fasih Ahmed
HOD, Department of Humanities, COMSATS University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
(2) Sana Hussan
Lecturer,Department of English, Women University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
(3) Muhammad Safiullah
Research Assistant, Humanity Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Independent judiciary is the foundation of a fair and impartial and constitutionally balanced society. Independence means that judges can freely make lawful decisions whether involving influential politicians, governmental personals or ordinary citizens. Thus, ensuring decisions are based on constitution rather than is the result of political pressures or is favoring some majority. Endowed with independence, the judicial system serves as a safeguard of the peoples rights and freedom. In Pakistan, although, our Constitution stipulates an independent judiciary but our governments, over the years, have been bent upon ensuring that our judges always live in a climate of fear and make biased and favorable decisions under the influence of the executives. The paper concludes that independent judiciary may not be the solution to all the problems of Pakistan but is the most important stride towards solving the problems faced by the state machinery.
Keywords : Independence, Accountability, Democracy, Media, Power
Authored by : (1) Sadaf Farooq
Assistant Professor, Department of Politics and International Relations,International Islamic University, Islamabad.
(2) Abida Rafique
PhD Scholar, Department of Politics and International Relations, International Islamic University, Islamabad.
In the competitive working environment, organizations and researchers have focused their attention to highlight means and ways to gain more advantage on less resource consumption; hence more focus is paid on channelizing Human Resource Practices to gain maximum return on Investment. The data is collected from the banking sector of Pakistan from a sample of 400 employees. The theme is to analyze the association among the variables at a multi-level i.e. the data is collected from two pools of respondents, one the staff level employees and the second are the middle management employees using an adapted questionnaire comprising of two sections for each pool respectively. Reliability test, correlation analysis and Regression analysis is conducted on the data. The findings of the result supports the positive association of independent variable with dependent variables (department and employee level measures of HPWS). The study sets implications for HR Professionals, Policy makers and Strategic thinkers.
The present research study analyzed the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Local Government Act, 2013 and find out the role of elected leaders in community development. The quantitative research design is used and sample is selected through simple random sampling technique. The researchers interview 300 respondents from district Mardan. The statistical results show that elected leaders are performing their effective role in infrastructure development i.e. schools, basic health units, irrigation channels, roads and safety wall as well as in dispute resolution and generating revenue for the local government. The present research study recommended that government should release the annual development budget to elected leaders on time for addressing the local citizen needs. Similarly, the study suggested that local government system should prevent from political interference in the province.
Keywords : Local Government, Community, Development, Leaders, Citizens
Authored by : (1) Hussain Ali
Lecturer, Department of Sociology, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
(2) Syed Ali Shah
Assistant Professor,Department of Pakistan Studies,Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
(3) Ahmad Ali
Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
This paper explores the nature of conflict that unfolded between the supporters of traditionalist and modernist education in Tsarist Central Asia. The paper explores the viewpoint of each camp and explores the causes of such approach. The paper finds that the conflict or divergence was driven by the desire to ensure the protection of political and economic interests each camp cherished. While status quo offered traditionalists economic security and political power, the new order and industrialization that came to Central Asia in the wake of Tsarist conquests offered modernists a future in which their political power and economic prosperity was ensured. Both camps diverged in rationalizing education as means to sustaining their world view. However, they also converged in their instrumental approach to education. Arguments that each camp offered to support their vision of education are relevant to the debates between the modern and traditional education in the modern Muslim world, especially Pakistan.
Keywords : Bukhara, Central Asian Education, Islamic education
Authored by : (1) Ayaz Ahmad
Lecturer,Department of English, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
(2) Sana Hussan
Lecturer,Department of English,Women University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
(3) Muhammad Shoaib Malik
Assistant Professor,Department of Pakistan Studies, National University of Modern Languages Islamabad, Pakistan.
Human Resource Management has been accentuated as a theme for research in various organizations and institutions and sufficient literature has been introduced on this subject since 1980s in the developed world (Harley and Hardy 2004). This aspect did not attract attention in developing / underdeveloped countries like Pakistan. Presence of literature regarding HRM at the workplace and ideological orientation warrants its application in our organizations/ institutions to help resolve managerial issues being confronted by the managers, employees and the employers. HRM ideology is distinguished by the unitarist and pluralist approach at workplace (Batt and Banerjee 2012).
Pak-Afghan relations have almost remained far from being normal and under the grip of allegations and counter allegation due to several bilateral political issues. However, trade relations have remained unrestrained from several decades. Afghanistan as a landlocked state always relied on Pakistani ports for its trade requirements with the rest of the world. Despite ups and downs in the relations, Pakistan provided the trade provision to Afghanistan under 1965 trade agreement which was replaced in October 2010 with agreement providing better trade facilities to Afghanistan with India. Pakistan has security concerns over India, as Indo-Afghan trade will reduce Pakistan's imports of goods. Growing Indian presence in the form of huge investment in Afghanistan has threatened Pakistan's security. Trade has great potential for Pakistan, India, and Afghanistan but security and sincereity are required for implementation of such agreements.
The term CBE is not only an ethic based approach to tourism but to make it sure the community engages actively and enjoys the accruing profits of tourism activities. Following the SFA Framework (Suitability, Feasibility, and Acceptability), this study critically reviewed tourism resources in ecologically sensitive coastal areas of Balochistan for assessing their potential for establishment of CBE. Bio-physical, socio-cultural, and tourism information were collected from coastal communities through a structured questionnaire and the same was analyzed through SWOT analysis, while, coastal scenic information was collected personally through a coastal scenic assessment and analyzed through fuzzy logic analysis. The study confirmed that selected coastal localities are potential CBE destinations. However, infrastructure and communities' knowledge for developing the desired services/products were below the required standards. Therefore, CBE within the selected localities without any investment in basic infrastructure and capacity building of communities would be detrimental for the natural environment.
The nature of this study was qualitative and covers the children collecting the Garbage and Rag picking in Rawalpindi city. In the study, Afghan scavengers were selected for qualitative analyses. The family backgrounds of these scavengers and the demographic factors were also analyzed. Most of the qualitative methods including key informant interviews, visit and stay in the area, In-depth interview of 50 participants was applied to observe the phenomenon and collect the relevant information. The process of scavenging and the situation explored presented that besides poverty and economic pressure, the migration, independent nature of scavenging work, higher income as capered to other forms of child labor and increased urbanization were the major causes behind the phenomenon. The study also revealed that scavenging children face isolation due to their Afghan identity, higher health risks due to unprotected exposure to hazardous waste and routine violence from people. A comprehensive strategy is required for dealing with this issue in society.
The US presidential elections are over and to the astonishment of media, surveys and polls; Donald Trump won a stunning victory over his democratic rival Hillary by 289 electoral votes. The election results were surprising and may not be digested by many Americans for long time and especially for the Democrats. The stunning victory of Trump does not seem so dramatic if the past elections are analyzed. This paper identifies few patterns through the analysis of past elections that support the Republican victory in the Elections 2016. This article highlights those patterns calling them the "Trump's Triumph Cards" and correlates them with the results of the current election. This paper identifies that the Role of the White Population, Population with 40+ years of age, The Rubio Factor in Florida, the vote of White Women, the increasing millennial Vote and the voting collapse for democrats were the contributing factors for Trump's dramatic win over Hillary Clinton. The data is collected from national polls' surveys and statistical departments and tabulated.
US hegemony as the result of its interventions in Cuba and Chile is a historical reality. The United States used to be scared that imposition of Communism had minimized the Americans dominance over there under the policy of nationalization. Although, the United States had tried his luck in Cuba twice, in decades of 1960's, to vanish communism dangerous roots, but unfortunately faced defeat. Again in 1970's decade the United States faced the same threat of communism (in form of Salvador Allende regime) in Chile. Chile has blessed with such rich mineral resources like Cuba, so the United States also had similarly established their strong hold inform of different significant companies. In order to prevent the power of Salvador Allende and his nationalization policy, the United States had launched military coup in 1973 resulted in success that also helps to minimize the communism threats in region.
Keywords : United States, Latin America, Caribbean, Communism, Capitalism, Cold-War
Authored by : (1) Abdul Zahoor Khan
Assistant Professor,Department of History & Pakistan Studies,International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
(2) Nargis Zaman
MPhil Scholar, Department of Political Science,University of Peshawar, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.
(3) Zahir Shah
Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
J. K. Rowling has written seven novels in the Harry Potter series. This fiction series has also inspired the educationists and academicians and it has been introduced in different western colleges as part of their syllabi. Warner Brothers made the films based on all the novels of Harry Potter series. Harry Potter World, the studio where these movies were made, is a tourist spot in London and thousands of fans from all over the world visit it every week. The present study explores teaching of Harry Potter and The Philosophers Stone in the light of Barthes Narrative Codes with emphasis on hermeneutic codes and their roles in the building blocks of narrative structure of the novel. The result of the study shows the extensive use of enigma and delays in the series to make it captivating and interesting for the readers.
Keywords : Harry Potter, Philosopher's Stone, Barthes's Narrative, Codes
Authored by : (1) Ameer Sultan
PhD Scholar,Department of English,International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
(2) Rashida Imran
Lecturer, Department of English Language and Applied Linguistics,Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
(3) Saira Maqbool
Assistant Professor, Department of English Language and Applied Linguistics,Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
The purpose of the study is to explore the attitude of undergraduate students towards plagiarism from both public and private higher educational institutions. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect the data through adopted questionnaire which comprised of three subscales; positive attitude, negative attitude and subjective norms towards plagiarism. Data was collected from 309 students of BS-Mathematics (n=155) and BS-English (n=154) programs in which 153 students are from public and 156 are from private institutions. Descriptive and inferential statistics methods were used to analyse the data. The results of the study revealed that undergraduate students from both programs have medium level of positive and negative attitude towards plagiarism. The findings show that there is no difference in positive attitude towards plagiarism, however difference is noted in negative attitude and subjective norms towards plagiarism between public and private students. Similarly no difference appears on the basis of three subscales between BS Mathematics and BS English undergraduate students.
Pakistan was made on the Islamic ideology, it was made to secure the political and religious rights of the Muslims. It was clearly illustrated in the Objectives Resolution that no law shall be made repugnant to Quran and Sunnah. The Islamic Provision of pre 1973 constitution provided base for Islamization. With the passage of time institutions like Council of Islamic Ideology and Federal Shariat Court were established. This study is an attempt to analyze whether the islamization process in law making actually fulfilled the considerations of the basis of this country. This paper will analyze the attempts in different eras, specially the era of Zia. Zia claimed to implement and impose Islam in every walk of life in Pakistan but his Islamization had adverse impacts and criticized by scholars. This is an attempt to grab the causes of failed Islamization and its impacts.
Keywords : Islamization, Zia regime, Political engineering, institionalization, Radicalization
Authored by : (1) Ali Shan Shah
Lecturer,Department of Political Science & IR,GC University Faisalabad, Punjab,Pakistan.
(2) Muhammad Waris
Assistant Professor, Government College Bhalwal, Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan.
(3) Abdul Basit
Lecturer,Department of Political Science & IR, GC University Faisalabad, Punjab,Pakistan.
Owner structure (OS) is an imperative feature of a firm and firm performance (FP). Recent studies have debated the effect of OS and FP around the world. Studies argue that OS is one of the important factors of decision making since principals expect wealth maximization while agents try to increase their personal gains. However, investor protection (IP) adds to the decision making with regards to OS since IP ensures that shareholders finds shall not be expropriated and that IP enhances the trust of all stakeholders and help in making informed decision. Based on this premise, we investigate the effect of OS on FP in the presence of IP. Using secondary data from Pakistans capital market for the years 2008-2015 and applying panel data techniques, we find that not only OS affects FP but the interaction term of IP and OS also has a significant on FP. These results indicate that capital markets in developing countries rely more on OS since it ensures that managers do not expropriate investors funds and thus make informed decisions.
Many studies have been carried out on the job satisfaction of employees at various organizational levels all over the world. However, little is known about the government versus private schools in district Malakand Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. This study compares the perceptions of private versus government school teachers job satisfaction related to its six component i.e, pay and promotion, job security, workload, supervision, work condition and nature of work. A questionnaire was used for data collection. The data were collected from 100 teachers both public and private schools on a convenient sample basis. This study showed that there was a significant difference among the job satisfaction level of teachers in private versus public schools on the job satisfaction scale. the results of the study showed that government school teachers were more satisfied with their jobs than the privately run school teachers on most of the dimensions of the scale.
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